Irregularly spelt common words

Shown below are 4,219 common words with unpredictable spellings. Only 2,828 have irregular spellings like ‘fruit’, but they make another 1,389 unpredictable. –  Long /oo/, for example, is spelt mainly oo (in 94 words like ‘food, soon’). But because they are outnumbered by 103 words in which long/oo/ is spelt differently (e.g. rude, shrewd, move), the spellings for long /oo/ all have to be learned one by one, in all 197 words.

      Next to the words with irregular spellings are shown respellings which conform to the main English spelling patterns. – Theyhelp to clarify their irregularities, and for words which pose both reading and as spelling difficulties, they also provide guides to pronunciation. 

    The tricky words are listed in the following order:

1) Words with irregular spellingsfor clear vowels and consonantsin alphabetical order of

     the spellings which they disobey,  i.e.  A,  a-e-ain air-ar,  au-aw,  -ay,  … .

2) Irregular spellings for unstressed vowels (e.g. flatten, certain, mutton)

3) Unpredictably doubled consonants (rabbit habit, very merry, shoddy body).

    The figures [in brackets] show how many of the 7,000 most used words which I analysed use the pattern  and how many do not.  Redundant or surplus letters are shown in red (e.g. have, debt, touch).

Heterographs, such as ‘ale/ail‘, are reduced to a single spelling [ale], like the 2,500 other English words which have just one spelling for their different meanings (e.g. bar, post, round).   mashabell@aol.com

 (hat) – [466 – 4/7]

have,  meringue,  plaid,  plait, aunt,draught,  laughhav,  merang,  plad,  plat, ant/ahnt,  draft/drahft,  laf/lahf  – (US/UK)

a-e / ai  (e.g. made/maid) – [338 – 75]

ale/ail,  bale/bail,  male/mail,   pale/pail,  sale/sail,  tale/tail,  whale/wail, aid/aide,  made/maid,  brake/break,  stake/steak, place/plaice,   waste/waist; ate/eight,  bate/bait grate/great,  straight/straits,  wait/weight,   fate/fête,   assail, cocktail, detail, fail, hail, jail, nail, prevail, rail, retail, snail, trail, braid,  laid,  paid, raid, afraid,
aim, claim, exclaim, maim, proclaim
daisy, praise, raise, raisin, traitor, freight,  faith halfpenny, neighbour, able, apron, cable, fable, gable, stable, table, cradle, ladle, sabre, gauge


ale,  bale,  male,  pale, sale,  tale, wale, ade, made brake,  stake, place,  waste, ate,  bate,  grate strate / strates,   wate, fate, asale, coctale, deetale, fale, hale, jale,  nale, prevale, rale, reetale, snale, trale, brade,  lade,  pade, rade, afrade,ame, clame, exclame, mame, proclame, 
dasy,  prase, rase, rasin,  trater,
frate, fathe
hapenny,  naber, abel, aperon,  cabel, fabel, gabel, stabel, tabel, cradel, ladel, saber, gage

ain  endingsare the most common (in 40 words), but 11 words use –ane, and a small number have other  irregularities.

Lain/lane, main/mane,  pain/pane,  plain/plane
rain/ reign, reins(reindeer),  vain/vein, crane,  sane,  membrane
skein;  deign, feign;  campaign; 
champagne, arrange, change, range, strange
lain,  main,  pain,  plain
rain,  rains(raindeer), vain,
crain,  sain, membrain, scain,  dain, fain,  campain, shampain, arainge, chainge, rainge, strainge,

Air are / ear  – The /air/ sound has  no clear main pattern, but the  ‘air’ spelling is the simplest for readers  (chair,  dairy, despair…) – [15 air – 43 others]; 7 words have two spellings and 2 have three.

Air/heir,   fair/fare,   flair/flare,    hair/hare,   pair/pare/pear,   stair/stare, bare/bear,  there/their,   ware/where/wear,
blare, care, dare, glare, mare, rare, scare, share, snare, spare, square
aware, compare, declare, parent, prepare
canary, hilarious, malaria,
Mary, various, vegetarian, wary. 
Swear,   tear x2,
  Area,    aerial, aeroplaneaerobatics. 


Air,   fair,  flair,    hair, pair,  stair, bair,  thair,   wair,
blair,  cair, dair, glair,  mair, rair, scair, shair, snair, spair, squair, 
awair, compair, declair,  pairent, prepair
canairy, hilairious, malairia, Mary (leaving names unchanged) vairious, vegetairian, wairy. 
Swair,   tair / teer, 
 Airia,   airial,  airoplain, airobatics.   

Just with air: chair, dairy, prairie, affair, despair, éclair, repair, questionnaire.

-ar – (far) – [138 – 3 /4]

 are,  heart, hearth,  clerk,ar,  hart,  harth,  clark(UK)

For speakers of standard British English,  the following have an ar/ah sound too:
Ask, bask, blast, cask, cast, caste, clasp, contrast, fast, flabbergast, flask, gasp, ghastly, grasp, last, mask, mast, past, rascal, task, vast, brass, class, glass, grass, pass, mass(x2 in UK).
   Advance, avalanche, banana, branch, chance, dance, chant, enhance, glance, lance, plant, prance, slant, soprano, stance, trance. 
   After, craft, daft, draft, giraffe, graft, raft, shaft, staff.  Almond, calf, calm, half, halve, palm, gala. 
 Drama, example, panorama, salami.  Bath, path, father, lather, rather. 
   Bra, la, ma, pa, spa, ah, hurrah, shah, baa,  armada, fuselage, promenade, strata, vase.   Graph.
 


Au / aw  -(autumn, awful, all, alter)  –  The /au/ sound has no clearly dominant main pattern,

but au is the most used spelling  [in 45 words  –  with 79 exceptions].

In  endings, it is spelt regularly as –aw (claw, draw, jaw), except ‘awe’.

Awe,    awful, awkward, awning, bawdy, dawdle, hawk, squawk
Bawl, brawl, crawl, drawl, scrawl, shawl, sprawl, trawl. 
   All,  almost,  already, also, altogether, always
ball, call, recall, fall, gall, hall, pall/Paul, small, squall, stalltall, wall,   
appal,  install, instalmentbald, scald, chalk stalk, talk,   altar/ alter, alternate x2, alternative, falter, halt, salt;        poultry
Brawn,  dawn,  drawn, fawn,  lawn,  pawn,  prawn,  sawn,  spawn,  yawn.
 Caught, daughter, haughty, naughty, slaughter, taught.
Bought, brought, fought, nought, ought,  sought, thought.
Broad.        Walnut, walrus, waltz; water.
Aw,     auful, aukward, auning, baudy,  daudle,   hauk, squauk.  Baul, braul, craul, draul, scraul, shaul, spraul, traul. 
Aul,  aulmost, aulreddy, aulso, aultugether,  aulways, 
baul, caul, recaul, faul, gaul, haul,  paul/Paul, smaul, squaul, staul, taul, waul,   
apaul,  instaul, instaulment, bauld, scauld, chaulk,  staulk, taulk, aulter, aulternate / aulternat, aulternativ, faulter, hault, sault;       paultry. 
Braun,  daun,  draun,  faun,  laun,   paun,  praun,  saun,  spaun,  yaun.  Caut, dauter,  hauty, nauty,  slauter, taut. Baut, braut, faut,  naut, aut, saut, thaut.
Braud. Waulnut, waulrus, waultz;  wauter.    

Spelt with au: applaud,  applause,  astronaut ,  auburn,  auction,  audacious,  audible,  August,  auspicious,  authentic,  author,  authorise,  authority,  auto,  autonomy,  autumn,  cauldron,  cause,  caution,  cautious,  cosmonaut,  daub,  exhaust,  fault,  gaudy,  haul,  haunt,  jaunt,  launch,  launder,  laundry,  maul,  nautical,  Paul,  pause,  Santa-Claus,  sauce,  saucer,  somersault,  staunch,  tarpaulin,  taunt,  taut,  vault. 


 –ay /-ey /-eigh – (say –  they, weigh)  –  [42 –ay  –  19 others]

They, grey, hey, convey, obey, survey.
 Neigh/nay,   slay/sleigh,   way/whey/weigh.
Ballet,  beret,  bouquet,  buffet,  duvet,  chalet,  chliche,  crochet,
Café,  matinee, sundae/Sunday 
thay,  gray, hay, convay, obay, survay,
nay,  slay,  way,
Ballay, berray, bookay, buffay, duvay, shallay, clishay, croshay.
 Caffay,  mattinay, sunday/Sunday 

With –ay:  bay,  betray,  bray,  clay,  day,  (Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday,  Sunday,  holiday,  midday,  today,  yesterday),  fray,  gay,  hay,  lay,  may,  pay,  play,  pray,  ray,  say,  slay,  spray,  stay,  stray,  sway,  tray,  way,  array,  astray,  away,  decay,  delay,  dismay,  display,  essay,  okay.  


Ca-, co-, cu-, cl-, cr- (cat, cot, cut, clip, crib, comic, arctic)

                                         [c in 1,000 words – with 33 exceptions).

chameleon, chaos, character, chasm, mechanical
kaleidoscope, kangaroo, karate, kayak, skate
anchor, cholesterol, chorus, psychological, school, 
bouquet,  quoit,  turquoise,  queue/cue, chlorine,  chocolateChristmas, chrome, chrysalis, chrysanthemum,  mackereltechnical, cockney, cocktail, anorak, barrack, ransack, stomach
Cameeleon, caos, caracter,  casm, mecannical, 
calidoscope, cangaroo, carahty, cayac, scate, 
ancor,  colesterol,  corus, sicolodgical,  scool, 
bookay,  coit,  turcoise,  cue, cloreen,  choclat, Crismas, crome, crissalis, crisanthemum, macrle,  tecnical, cocny, coctale, annorac, barrac, ransac, stummac

Ch – (chip) – regular, apart from ‘cello‘,  but with a  redundant  t–  (catch) after short vowels in 24 words,  unlike 7:   much, rich, such, touch, which, attach,  detach.                         

Cello. Catch, hatch, latch, match, patch, scratch, snatch, thatch, dispatch; sketch, stretch,  wretch/retch; ditch, hitch, itch, pitch, stitch, switch, twitch, witch/which; notch, watch;   hutch, Dutch.Chello. Cach, hach, lach, mach, pach, scrach,   snach, thach, dispach; skech, strech,  rech; dich, hich, ich, pich, stich, swich, twich,   wich; noch, woch;   huch, Duch.


-cy  (fancy) – /see/-sound in endings – [11 –cy   –  6 not]:

Controversy, courtesy, fantasy, gypsy,  topsy-turvy.   Embassy.Controvercy, curtecy, fantacy, gipcy, topcy-turvy.    Embacy.

With –cy:  agency,  conspiracy,  delicacy,  democracy,  diplomacy,  emergency,  fancy ,  mercy,  policy,  tendency,  vacancy.

 
E – (bed – head) –  exceptions mainly with a surplus a – [301 e – 64 irregular]

Bread/bred, breadth, breast, breath, dead, deaf, dealt,  death, dread, dreamt, head, health,    lead x2,  leant, leapt, meant, readx2, realm, spread, sweat, thread, threat, wealth.   Breakfast, cleanliness, cleanse, endeavour, feather, heather, instead, leather, measure, pleasure,stealthy, treacherous, tread,  treasure, weather.
  Every, friend,
Against, said, says, every, Wednesday.
bred, bredth,  brest,  breth,  ded,  def,  delt,  deth,  dred,  dremt,  hed,  helth,    leed, led,  lent,  lept,  ment,  reed, red, relm,  spred,  swet,  thred,  thret,  welth.   Brekfast,  clenlines,  clense,  endevour,  fether,  hether,  insted,  lether,  mesure,  plesure, stelthy,  trecherous,  tred,  tresure,  wether.
 Evry, frend. Agenst,  sed,  ses,  evry,  Wensday.

The following 16 are also without a doubled consonant after the short /e/ sound:

 Heaven, heavy, jealous, meadow,   peasant, pheasant, pleasant, ready, (already), steady, weapon, zealous
Any, many. Jeopardy, leopard.   Berry/bury.  Heifer. Leisure,  lieutenant
Hevven,  hevvy,  jellous, meddo, pezzent, fezzent, plezzent, reddy, (aulreddy), steddy, weppon, zellous, 
enny,  menny, jeppardy, leppard, berry,  heffer. UK: Lesure,  leftennent; US: leesure,   lutennent.

Ee / ea / e-e … – (deed, lead, concede, siege, conceive, police, people, key, sk
Spellings for the /ee/-sound are completely unpredictable, apart from a few longer words which end with a stressed /ee/ (agree, chimpanzee, employee). The 452 spellings for the 404 common words with an /ee/ sound all have to be learned one by one.
    48 words have two spellings:

Bee/be,  beech/beach,  been/bean,  beet/beat, breech/breach,  cheep/cheap,  creek/creak,  deer/dear, discreet/discrete,  eerie/eyrie,  eve/eaves, feet/feat,  flee/flea,  freeze/frieze,   jeans/genes, Greece/grease,   heel/heal,  hear/here,   key/quay,  leech/leach, leek/leak,  meet/meat,  need/knead, pee/pea,  peace/piece, peek/peak,  peel/peal,  peer/pier,  reed/ readx2[reed/red],   reek/wreak,  reel/real, sealing/ceiling,  seamen/semen,  see/sea,  seem/seam,   seen/scene,   serial/cereal,    sheer/shear, sheikh/chic,   steel/steal,  sweet/suite,   tee/tea,  teem/team,   wee/we,  week/weak,  wheel/weal. + UK: Geezer/geyser,  lever/leaverBee,  beech, been,   beet,  breech,   cheep,   creek,   deer,  discreet,   eery,  eev(s),   feet,   flee,   freese,     jeens,    Greece/ greece,    heel,   heer,  kee/quay,  leech,  leek,   meet,   need,  pee,    peece,   peek,   peel,   peer,   reed/red,     reek,   reel,    seeling,   seemen,   see,   seem,    seen,    seerial,    sheer,   sheek,   steel,    sweet,  tee,   teem,    wee,   week,   weel. UK: Geeser,  leever. US: geeser,  giser,   leever, lever.

The other unpredictable spellings for /ee/ are shown below. 

The 80 words with just ee for the /ee/ sound have to be learned word by word too: 

Beef, beer, beetle, between, bleed, bleep, breed, breeze, career, cheek, cheer, cheese, cheetah, creep, deed, deep, eel, exceed, feeble, feed, feel, fleece, fleet, geese, greed, green, greet, indeed, jeep, jeer, keel, keen, keep, kneel, meek, needle, peep, pioneer, preen, proceed, proceedings, proceeds, queen, queer, reef, screech, screen, seed, seek, seep, seesaw, sheep, sheet, sleek, sleep, sleet, sleeve, smithereens, sneer, sneeze, speech, speed, squeeze, steep, steeple, steer, street, succeed, sweep, sweet, teeth, teetotal, thirteen, tweed, tweezers, weed, weep, wheedle, wheeze, wildebeest. 

 Achieve, adhesive, albino, antique, appeal, appear,arena, aubergine, beacon, bead, beak, beam, beard, beast, beaver, belief, believe, beneath, bikini, bleach, bleak, bleat, breathe, brief , cafeteria, caffeinecathedral, cease, cedar, chameleon, cheat, chief, chinese, clean, clear, clementine, cliché, codeine, colleague, comedian, compete, complete, conceal, conceit,   conceive, concrete, congeal, convene, convenient, cream, crease, creature, deal,  dean, debrisdeceit, deceive, decent, decrease, defeat, demon, diesel, disease, dream, dreary, each, eager, eagle, ear, ease, east, Easter, eat, equal, era, even, evil, experience, exterior, extreme, fatigue, fear, feasible, feast, feature, female, fever, field, fiend, fierce,  freak, frequent, gear, geniegenius, gleam, glean, grief, grieve, guillotine, he, heap, heat,  heath, heathen, heave, hero, hyena, hygienic, imperial, increase, inferior, ingredient, intermediate, interior, leadx2, leaf, league, lean, leap, lease, leash, least, leave, legal, legion, lenient, machine, magazine, margarine, marine, material, me, meagre, meal, mean, measles, medieval, medium, mere, meteor, meter, millipede, mosquito, mysterious, near, neat, niece, obedient, ordeal, peach, peat, people, period, peter, pierce, pizza, plasticine, plead, please, pleat, police, polythene, preach, precede, prestige, previous, priest, protein, queasy, query, ravine, reach, really, reap, rear, reason, receiptreceive  recent, recess, regime, region, relay, release,  relief, relieve, repeat, retreat, reveal, routine, sardine, scheme, scream, seal, sear, season, seat, secret, seize, senior, sequence, sequin, series, serious, serum,  she, sheaf, sheath, shield, shriek, siege, ski, smear, sneak, souvenir, speak, spear, species, sphere, squeak, squeal, squeamish, stampede, steam, strategic, streak, stream, superior, supreme, swede, tambourine, tangerine,  teach, teak, tearx2, tease, tedious,  theatre, theme, theory, these, thief, thieve, tier, torpedo, trampoline, trapeze, treacle, treason, treat, treaty,  uniquevaseline, veal, vehicle, Venuswean, weary, weasel, weave, weir, weirdwheat, wield, wreath, year, yeast, yieldzeal, zeroacheev, adheesiv, albeeno, anteek, apeel, apeer, areena, aubergeen, beecon, beed, beek, beem, beerd, beest, beever, beleef, beleev,  beneeth, bikeeny, bleech, bleek, bleet, breethe,  breef, cafeteeria, caffeen, catheedral, seece, seedar, cameelien, cheet, cheef, chineese, cleen, cleer, clementeen, cleeshay,  codeen, colleeg, comeedian, compeet, compleet, conceel, conceet, conceev, concreet, congeel, conveen, conveenient, creem, creece,  creecher, deel, deen, debree, deceet, deceev, deecent, decreece, defeet, deemon, deesel, diseese, dreem, dreery, eech, eeger, eegle, eer, eese,  eest, Eester, eet, eequal, eera,  eeven, eevil, expeerience,  exteerior, extreem, fateeg, feer, feesible, feest, feecher, feemale, feever, feeld, feend, feerce, freek, freequent, geer, jeeny,  jeenius, gleem,  gleen, greef, greev, gilloteen, hee, heep, heet,  heeth, heethen, heev, heero, hieena, higeenic, impeerial, increece, infeerior, ingreedient, intermeediat, inteerier,  leed/ led, leef,  leeg, leen,  leep, leece, leesh, leest, leev,  leegal, leegion, leenient, masheen, magazeen, margereen, mareen, mateerial, mee, meegre, meel, meen, meesles, medeeval, meedium, meer, meeteor, meeter, millipeed, mosqueeto, misteerious, neer, neet, neece, obeedient, ordeel, peech, peet,  peeple,  peeriod, peeter, peerce, peetsa, plasticeen,  pleed, pleese, pleet, poleece, pollytheen,  preech, preceed,   presteege, preevious, preest, proteen, queesy, queery, raveen, reech, reely, reep, reer, reeson, receet, receev, reecent, reeces, regeem, reegion, reelay, releece, releef, releev, repeet, retreet, reveel, rooteen,   sardeen, skeem, screem, seel,  seer, seeson, seet, seecret, seese, seenier, seequence, seequin, seeries, seerious, seerum, shee,  sheef, sheeth, sheeld, shreek, seege, skee, smeer, sneek, sooveneer, speek, speer, speecies, sfeer,  squeek, squeel, squeemish, stampeed, steem, strateegic,  streek, streem, supeerier, supreem, sweed, tambureen, tangereen, teech, teek,  teer/tair, teese, teedious,   theeater, theem, theeory,  theece,  theef, theev, teer, torpeedo, trampoleen, trapeese, treecle, treeson, treet, treety, uneek, vaseleen, veel, veehicle, Veenus, ween, weery, weesel, weeve, weer, weerd, weet,  weeld,  reeth, yeer, yeest, yeeld,  zeel, zeero

      Many of the different spellings for /ee/ cause reading difficulties as well.

     ea:  treat –  threat, great; ear – earn, bear, heart;     e-e:  here – there;      ie:  fiend – friend, sieve, diet;     ei:  seize – reindeer, leisure, eider;      i-e:  machine – refine, imagine;    eo:  people – leopard, leotard;       ey:  key – they;   i:  ski – hi;    is:  debris – pelvis.


 er /ur / ir / ear … – (berth, burst, bird, earn, worth) – [71 er, 70 ur, 39 ir23 assorted].  
     The 203 words with a stressed /er/sound have no main spelling.

This means that no respelt words with this sound look right, as shown below. The different spellings pose no reading difficulties, apart from the 11 wors with ear (e.g. early, ear, bear). This makes this irregularity a less serious educational handicap and in less urgent need of repair.

Berth/birth,  fern, her, herb, herd, jerk, nerve, perch, serve, stern, swerve, term, verb, verge, verse, were.
Advertisement, alert, alternative, anniversary, assert, certain, commercial, concern, confer, conserve, conversion, deserve, dessert, detergent, determine, emerge, eternal, exert, external, fertile, germinate, hermit, impertinent, insert, interpret, jersey, kernel, merchant, mercury, mercy, observe, perfect, perfume, permanent, permit, person, pertinent, preserve, refer, reserve, reverse, sermon, serpent, terminate, termite, thermal,  transferx2, universal, university, verdict, vermin, version, versus, vertical. Bler, berden, berglar, bergle, berly, bern, berr, berst, cherch, chern, kerfew, kerl, kerlew, kerse, kert, kerve, disterb, exkersion, fer, fernish, ferry, ferther, gergle, herdle, herl, hert, hertle, incersion, lerch, lerk, merder, mermer, nastertium, nerse, nersery, occer, perchase, perple, perpose, perr, perse, retern, sler, sper, spern, spert, sterdy, serf, serface, serge, sergeon, sergery, sername, serplus, servey, Thersday, topsy-tervy, terban, terbine, terf, terkey, termoil, tern, ternip, terquoise, tertle, erban, erchin, erge, ern, yert.    Berch, berd, berth, cherp, cercle, cercuit, cercular, cercumstances, cercus, conferm, dert,  encercle, fer, ferm, ferst, flert, gerder, gerdle, gerl, merth, sherk, shert, ser, skermish,  skert, smerk, squerm, squert, ster, swerl, therd, therst, therteen, therty, twerl,  vertually, vertue, wherl, wherring. Erl, erly, ern, ernest, erth, herd, lern, perl, reherse,  serch, yern. Werd, werk, werld, werm, werse, wership, werst, werth. Aterny,  kertecy, jernal,  jerny.
Burth,  furn, hur, hurb, hurd, jurk, nurve, purch, surve,  sturn, swurve, turm, vurb, vurge, vurse, wur.
Advurtisement, alurt, alturnative, annivursary, assurt, surtain, commurcial, consurn, confur, consurve, convursion, desurve, dessurt, deturgent, deturmin, emurge, eturnal, exurt, exturnal, furtile, jurminate, hurmit, impurtinent, insurt, inturpret, jursy, kurnel, murchant, murcury, murcy, obsurve, purfect, purfume, purmanent, purmit, purson, purtinent, presurve, refur, resurve, revurse, surmon, surpent, turminate, turmite, thurmal, transfer(n), to transfur, univursal, univursity, vurdict, vurmin, vursion, vursus, vurtical. Blur, burden, burglar, burgle, burly, burn, burr, burst,  church, churn, curfew, curl, curlew, curse, curt, curve, disturb, excursion, fur, furnish, furry, further, gurgle, hurdle, hurl, hurt, hurtle, incursion, lurch, lurk, murder, murmur, nasturtium, nurse, nursery, occur, purchase, purple, purpose, purr, purse, return, slur, spur, spurn, spurt, sturdy, surf, surface, surge, surgeon, surgery, surname, surplus, survey, Thursday, topsy-turvy, turban,   turbine, turf, turkey, turmoil, turn, turnip, turquoise, turtle, urban, urchin, urge, urn, yurt. Burch, burd, burth, churp,  surcle, surcuit, surcular, surcumstances, surcus, confurm, durt,  ensurcle, fur, furm, furst, flurt, gurder, gurdle, gurl, murth, shurk, shurt, sur, scurmish,  skurt, smurk, squurm, squurt, stur, swurl, thurd, thurst, thurteen, thurty, twurl,  vurtually, vurtue, whurl, whurring. Url, urly, urn, urnest, urth, hurd, lurn, purl, rehurse, surch, yurn. Wurd, wurk, wurld, wurm, wurse, wurship, wurst, wurth. Aturny, curtecy, jurnal, jurny. 
  firn, hir, hirb, hird, jirk, nirve, pirch, sirve, stirn, swirve, tirm, virb, virge, virse, wir.  Advirtisement, alirt, altirnative, annivirsary, assirt, cirtain, commircial, consirn, confir, consirve, convirsion, desirve, dessirt,  detirgent, detirmin, emirge, etirnal, exirt, extirnal, firtile, girminate, hirmit, ….                                                                         Birch, bird, birth, chirp, circle, circuit, circular, circumstances, circus, confirm, dirt, encircle, fir, firm, first, flirt, girder, girdle, girl, mirth, shirk, shirt, sir, skirmish, skirt, smirk, squirm, squirt, stir, swirl, third, thirst,  thirteen, thirty, twirl, virtually, virtue, whirl, whirring. Earl, early, earn, earnest, earth, heard/herd,  learn, pearl,   rehearse, search, yearn. Word, work, world, worm, worse, worship, worst, worth. Attorney. Courtesy, journal, journey.

F – (fun – phonto) – (580 – 44)

 Phantom, pharaoh, phase, pheasant, phenomenon, philosophy,  physics, physiological,  phone, photograph, phrase;
alphabet, amphibian, asphyxiate, apostrophe, catastrophe, cellophane,  decipher, dolphin, elephant, emphasise,  nephew, orphan,  pamphlet, prophet, sapphire, siphon,  sophisticated, sphere, symphony,  trophytyphoon;
Graph, Joseph, nymph, triumph. Laugh, draught.
Cough, trough, enough, rough,  sloughx2tough.
Fantom, faro, fase, fezzent, fenommenon, filossofy,  fizzics, fisiological, fone, fotograf, frase;
alfabet, amfibian, asfixiate, apostrofy, catastrofysellofane,  decifer, dolfin, ellefent, emfacise,  neffue, orfen, pamflet, proffet, saffire, sifon,  sofisticated, sfeer, simfony,  trofy,  tifoon; Graf,  Josef,  nimf, triumf. Laf,  draft. Cof, trof, enuff, ruf,    slow/sluf,  tuf.

G – (garden; get, gift) – 12 words have extra letters after g  to show that it should not be pronounced

        /j/beore e or i, as in ‘gentle giant’, but as in ‘garden’.

Gherkin; spaghetti. Guess, guest, 
Guillotine, guilt, guinea-pig, guitar,  disguise, guide; dinghy, guy.
gerkin; spagetti, ges, gest, 
gilloteen, gilt, ginny-pig, gitar,  disgise,  gide; dinghy, gy,

They don’t really need them, as 25 words with a hard g get by without extra letters:

Gear, geese, get, geyser, anger, eager, finger, hunger, linger, tiger, hamburger, forget, target.
Giddy, giggle, gild, gills, gilt, girder, girdle, girl, give; begin, corgi, gymkhana.

     15 words have completely surplus letters after g (before  a and o)

Ghastly, guarantee, guard, ghost, ghoulish,yogurt/yoghurt.
Catalogue, dialogue, epilogue, synagogue. Colleague, fatigue, league. Meringue, tongue.
gastly, garantee, gard, goast, goolish, yoggurt(UK), yogurt (US)
cattalog, dialog, eppilog, sinnagog, colleeg, fateeg, leeg, merang, tung

-ge, -gi– – (age, engine, revenge) – are the main spellings for a / j/-sound  inside words and in endings, except in:

Adjective, inject, object, objection, project, reject, subject.  Majesty, majestic.As those irregular spellings are helpful to readers, they could be left as exceptions.


H – (hot, house) – with just 6 exceptions:

Who, whom, whose, whooping.  Hole/whole,  holy/wholly.hoo, hoom, hoose, hooping,   hole, holy

I – (sit – system) –  (421 – 53) – exceptions mainly with y.

      Some lack consonant doubling as well (synonym) and have other irregularities (cylinder).

     Abyss, crypt, crystal, cyclical, cygnet, cymbals, cyst, eucalyptus, gym, hymn, hypnotise, lynch, lynx, mystery, myth, Olympics, rhythm, syllable, symbol/cymbal, symmetry, sympathy,  symptom, synchronise, syndicatex2,  syndrome, synthesis, system.    Without doubled consonants (cf symmetry)
Chrysalis, cylinder, cynical, lyric, physics, synagogue, synonym, syrup, typical, tyranny. Build, built, busy, English, pretty, sieve, vineyard, women.
     Abiss, cript, cristal, siclical, signet, simbals, sist, ucaliptus, jim, him, hipnotise, linch,  linx, mistery, mith, Olimpics, rithm, sillable, simble, simmetry, simpathy,  simptom, sincronise, a  sindicat/to sindicate,  sindrome, sinthesis, sistem

Chrissalis, sillinder, sinnical, lirric,  fizzics, sinnagog, sinnonim, sirrup, tippical, tirrany. Bild, bilt, bizzy, Inglish, pritty, siv, vinyard, wimmen.


i-e – (bite – bright) – [278 – 76]

I /eye. Bite/bight(bay),  knight/night,  lite/light,  mite/might,  rite/right/write,   slight/sleight(of hand), sight/site/cite,
alight, blight, bright, delight, fight, flight, fright, frighten, lightning, mighty, tight
Height; indict
Bible, bridle, disciple, idle, rifle, stifle, trifle. (cf. libel, idol – biblical).
Climb/clime, rhyme/rime,  style/stile, tire/tyre, asylum, cycle, cypress, dyke, dynamic, dynamite, dynamo, hyacinth, hydrangea, hydrogen, hyena, hypothesis, nylon,  paralyse, psychology, pylon,  thyroid, type, tyrant.
  Choir, eider-down,  (Fahrenheit),  island; kaleidoscopeninth, resign, sign. Either, neither     Hygrometer (seems better than higerometer), also pythonscythe;    y for i before blended consonants  would also improve these: Behind, bind, blind, find, grind, hind,  kind, mind, pint, rind,   wind x2; Child, mild, wild, whilst.  (cf. children, mildew, wilderness) [In the 16th C  i  and   were used randomly.]
i,
bite, nite, lite,
mite, rite, slite, site, 
alite, blite, brite, delite, fite, flite, frite, friten, litening, mity, tite, 
hite,  indite,
bibel, bridel, dicipel, idel, rifel, stifel, trifel,    Clime,  rime, stile,  tire, asilum, sikel, siperes, dike, dinammic, dinamite, dinamo, hiacinth, hiderangea, hiderogen, hiena,  hipothesis, nilon,  parralise, sicollogy, pilon,  thiroid, tipe, tirent, quier,  ider-doun, Farrenhite,  iland,  kalidoscope, nineth,  resine, sine, ither, nither (UK pronunciation),  eether, neether (US),  


Behynd, bynd, blynd, fynd, grynd, hynd, kynd, mynd, pynt, rynd,   
wind/wynd, chyld, myld, wyld, wylst,   


J – (jam, job, jug) – Before ao and u the spelling is completely regular,

        but less predictable before ei and y:

Jelly, jest, jet, jettison, jetty, jealous, jerk, jersey; jeans, jeep, jeer, Jew, jewel.  Jiffy, jig, jigsaw, jilt, jingle. Jive.

Gem, general, generation, generous,  genie, genius, gentle, genuine, geography, geranium, germ, gesture.
Gin, ginger, gipsy/gypsy, giraffe, gym, gyp. Giant, gyroscope.
Jem, jenneral, jeneration, jennerous,  jeeny, jeenius, jentle, jennuin, jeografy, jeranium, jerm, jesture. Jin, jinjer, jipsy, jiraf,  jim, jip. Jient, jiroscope.


K – (take – ache)  – [236 – 22] –  The main spelling for the /k/ sound is c (see above).

K is used:  1) before e and i (makekite),    2) after long vowels (speak) and

                    3) after consonants (milk, ankle),  except:

1) Chemical, orchestra; ache, opaque;
     architect, bronchial, orchid;
     marquee, mosquito, quay/key. 
2) antique, boutique, technique, unique.
3) Circle, conker/conquer, monarch, uncle,
 disk/disc, molluscmosque, picturesque,  grotesque.
Kemmical, orkestra, ake, opake,
 arkitect, bronkial, orkid,
 markee, moskeeto,  kee, 
anteek, booteek, tecneek, uneek,
sirkle, conker, monnark, unkle,
disk,  molluskmosk,  picturesk,  grotesk.


L – (lamp – llama) – [1,945 – 1] – lahma
     

M – (mum – crumb) – [1,129 – 17]

 Lamb, limb, bomb, aplomb, crumb, dumb, numbplum/plumb,  plumber, thumb, succumb.
Autumn, column, dam/damn, condemn him/hymn,  solemn.
Lam, lim, bom, aplom, crum, dum, num, plum,  plummer, thum, sucum.
Autum,  collum, dam, condem,  him,  sollem.


N – (nun, boffin – knuckle, famine ) – [2,312 – 23]

Need/knead,  new/knew,  nit/knit,  night/knight, no/know,  nob/knob,  not/knot;
knack, knave, knee, kneel, knife, knobbly, knock, knuckle.
   Gnash, gnat, gnaw, gnome. Foreign, sovereign. Pneumonia, pneumatic
Determine, discipline, famine, feminine, genuine, heroineimagine, masculine, medicine.      Gone, shone; scone (pronounced ‘scon’ and ‘scone’).
Need,  nue,  nit,  nite,  no,  nob,  not, 
nack, nave, nee, neel, nife, nobbly, nock, nuckle,
   nash, nat, naw, nome,  forren, sovren, numonia, numattic, 
determin, dissiplin, fammin, femminin, gennuin, herroin, imadgin, masculin, meddicin,     gon, shon, scone


O – (on  – swan) – [357 – 33] – mainly after  w and qu:

Swallow, swamp, swan, swap, waft, wand,  wander, want/wont, wanton, warrant, warren,  warrior, was, wash, wasp, watch,   Watt/what, wattle.
 Quality, quadrangle, quantity,  quarantine, quarrysquabble, squad,  squander, squash,  squat.         Cough, trough; laurel, sausage.
Swollow, swomp, swon, swop, woft, wond,  wonder, wont,  wonton, worrent, worren,  worrier, wos, wosh, wosp, woch,    wot, wottle, 
quollity, quodrangle, quontity,  quorranteen, quorry, squobble, squod,   squonder, squosh, squot,     cof, trof, lorrle, sossage.


o – e,  -o – (note,  no  –  boat,toe) – [190 – 167]
     In more recently imported English words the long /o/ soundis speltmainly with an ‘open’ o,

 (vote, pro, solo), but in older everyday words the spellings are highly unpredictable,

but some cause no reading difficulties (boast, bold, bolt) and could remain unchanged.

Boat, cloak, coal, coat, croak, float, foal,  foam, gloat, goal, goat, groan, load, loaf,  loan/lone, moan, oaf, oak, oats, poach, road,  roam, shoal, soak, soap, stoat, throat, toad, Approach,   broach/brooch, boast, coachcoast, coastal, coaster, coax, cockroach,  loathe,  poach, roast,  toast.      Knoll,  poll/pole, roll/role, scroll, stroll, toll, troll, swollen, wholly/holy.
Control, enrol, patrol. 
     Bold, cold, fold, gold, hold, old, scold, sold, solder, soldier, told
     Folk, yolk/yoke. Holster. Bolt, colt, dolt, jolt, revolt. Only.  Gross.  
Both, sloth.   Host, most, post, postal, poster
  Mould, moult, soul/sole, shoulder, smoulder. 
Goes. Mauve. Noble
Blown, bowl, grown, growth, known,  moan/mown,  own, shown, sown/sewn, thrown/throne.
Blowbowx2, crow, flow, glow, grow know/no, low, mow, rowx2show, slow, snow, so/sew/sowx2,  stow, throwtow
     Arrow, barrow, bellow, below, billow burrow, elbow, fellow, follow, gallow, hollow marrow, narrow, pillow, shadow, shallow, swallow, sorrow, sparrow, tomorrow wallow, widow, willow, window, yellow.
     Doe,  floe, foe, hoe, roe, sloetoe, woe.  
     Oh/owe.  So/sew.  Dough, though
Bungalow.  Cocoa.  Oboe.  Pharaoh.  Depot.
bote,  cloke,  cole,  cote,  croke,  flote,  fole,   fome,  glote,  gole,  gote,  grone,  lode,  lofe,   lone,  mone, ofe, oke, otes,  rode,   rome,  shole, soke,  sope,   stote,  throte,  tode,   broach,     nole,  pole,  role, scrole, strole, tole, trole,  swolen, holy
controle, enrole, patrole, 
     bold, cold, fold, gold, hold, old, scold, sold, solder, soldier, told, 
     foke, yoke,  holster, bolt, colt, dolt, jolt, revolt, onely,  groce,  
boath, sloath,   hoast, moast, poast, poastal, poaster, 
     mold, molt, sole, sholder,  smolder,  gose, move, nobel,  blone, bole, grone, groath, knone,  mone, one, shone, sone, throne, blo,  bo/bow,  cro, flo, glo, gro,   no,  lo, mo, ro/rou,  sho, slo, sno, so, sou, sto, thro,  to, 
     arro,  barro,  bello,  belo,  billo, burro, elbo,  fello,  follo,  gallo,  hollo,    marro, narro,  pillo,  shaddo,  shallo,    swollo, sorro,  sparro,  tomorro,   wollo,  widdo, willo,  windo,  yello,      do,  flo,  fo,  ho,  ro,  slo,  to,  wo,  
     o,  so,  do,  tho, 
bungalo,  coco,  obo,  faro,  depo,

Older words with  open o:  Ago, also, fro, go, hello, no. 
     Alone, arose, bone, bony, broke, choke, chose, chosen, close, clothes, clover, code, cone, cope, cove, dole, dome, dose, doze, drone, drove, froze, frozen, grocer, grope, hole/whole, holy, home, hope, hose, joke, lone, mole, nose, open, over, poke, pony, pope, primrose, rode, rope, rose, scope, slope, smoke, spoke, stoke, stole, stolen, stone, strode, stroke, tadpole, throne, tone, woke, wove, wrote, yodel, yoke. 
     More recently imported words with open o:

Albino, armadillo, banjo, bingo, buffalo, cargo, cello, disco, domino, duo, dynamo, echo, Eskimo, flamingo, halo, hero, judo, kimono, motto, panto, piano, piccolo, Pluto, polo, potato, pro, pseudo, radio, ratio, solo, soprano, studio, tango, tobacco, tomato, tornado, torpedo, trio, video, volcano, zero.
Alcove, associated, bulldoze, crochet, chrome, commotion, component, compose, casserole, devoted, diploma, dispose, elope, explode, expose, global, heroic, impose, Joseph, jovial, kimono, local, located, lotion, mobile, mode, moment, motel, motive, node, nomad, note, notice, oboe, ocean, October, omen, opal, oppose, opponent, oval, phone, poem, polar, pose, postpone, potion, proboscis, process, programme, promote, proposal, protest, quote, robe, remote, Roman, rover, slogan, sober, sociable, social, socialism, socialist, soda, sofa, solar, suppose, token, total, trombone, utopia, vocal, vote, yodel, zodiac, zone.    

Oi,  -oy – (spoil,  ploy – oyster, buoy) – [29, 12 – 4,1]

Loyal, (loyalty), oyster, royal, (royalty), voyage.
      Boy/buoy.
Loial, (loialty), oister, roial, (roialty), voiage.
Boy.


OO,  -oo – (food, too – rude, do) – [94 – 103]   – with totally unpredictable spellings.

Brutal, brute, crucial, crude,  fluent, fluid,  fluke, flute,  frugal, glucose, intrude, jubilant,  July, June, Jupiter, jury, juvenile,  lubricate, ludo, ludicrous, lukewarm, luminous, lunar, lunatic, plural,   prune, recluse, ruby, rude, ruin, rule, rural, rumour, secluded,  truant, truce, truly, truth, Zulu.        Bruise, cruise, sluice; fruit, recruit. Acoustic, bivouac, boutique, coupon,   group, recoup, route/root, soup, toucan,  tourist, troupe, wound, youth.
     Lose, move, prove
Tomb, womb. Gruesome. Sleuth. Manoeuvre. Shrewd, strewn.
Blew/blue,  flew/flue/flu,  threw/through, brew, crew, drew, grew, screw, shrew,  slew, strew, cashew
   Clue, glue, rue, true, accrue, construe. Gnu, guru. 
Do, who,  lasso.  Canoe
shoo/shoe/choux,,  too/to/two.
brootal,  broot,  croocial,  crood,   flooent,  flooid,  flook,  floot,   froogal,  gloocose,  introod,  joobilent,   July, June, Jupiter,  joory,  joovenile,  loobricate,  loodo,  loodicrous,  lookwarm,  loominous,  looner,  loonatic,  plooral,   proon,  reclooce,  rooby,  rood,   rooin,  rool,  rooral, roomer, seclooded,  trooent,  trooce,  trooly,  trooth,  Zooloo
     broose,  croose,  slooce,  froot,  recroot, acoostic,  bivooac,  booteek,  coopon,   groop,  recoop,  root,  soop,  toocan,   toorist,  troop, woond,  yooth,      looz,  moov,  proov
toom, woom,
  groosum,  slooth,  manoover shrood,  stroon, bloo,  floo,  throo,   broo,  croo,  droo,  groo,  scroo,  shroo,    sloo,  stroo,  cashoo
cloo,  gloo,  roo,  troo,  acroo,  constroo,   noo,  gooroo,  doo,  hoo,  lasoo,  canoo
shoo,   too,

        Long /oo/ spelt oo:

Baboon, balloon, bloom, boom, boon, boost, boot, brood, broom, cartoon, choose, cocoon, cool, doom, droop, food, fool, gloom, goosegroom, groove, harpoon, hoof, hooligan, hoop, hoot, lagoon, loomloop, loose, loosen, loot, macaroon, maroon, mood, moon, moor, moot, mushroom, noodle, noon, noose, pontoon, poodle, pool, poo, poop, poor, proof, roofroom, root, saloon, school, schooner, scoop, scoot, scooter, shoot, smooth, snooker, soon, soothe, spoof, spook, spool, spoon, stool, stoop, swoon, swoop, tool, tooth, troop, whoop, zoom.

Boo, coo, goo, loo, moo, woo, zoo,  bamboo, cockatoo, hullabaloo, igloo, kangaroo, shampoo, tattoo, voodoo, yahoo.   


Short oo  (foot – put) – [15 – 21] – has no spelling of its own. All spellings of it are more common for other sounds (good – food,  should – shoulder, full – dull), so there is no obvious way of improving it.

Good, hood, stood, wood,  book, brook, cook, hook, look, rook, shook, took,  wool, whoosh, foot.   
Cuckoo  Bull, full, pull, bullet, bullion.  Bush, cushion, push, shush.  Put, butcher, pudding, pussy, sugar.      Could, should, would    Wolf, woman.   Courier.

Or – (lord – board) – [188 – 16]  – mostly regular inside words.

Board/bored, course/coarse, hoard/horde, horse/hoarse, court,  resource, source, tournament
Quart, quarter. Warm, warn/worn, wart. War/wore, warble, ward (award, reward), wardrobe, warm, warn/worn, warp, wart, dwarf.
Bord, bored,  corce, hord, horce, cort, resorce, sorce, tornament, quort, quorter, wormworn, wort. Wor, worble, word (aword, reword), wordrobe, worm, worn, worp, wort, dworf.

In endings very unpredictable:  more – nor,  four, more  – [22 – 20 ]

For/four,  (fourth, fourteen,  forty),    nor,    or/oar. 
Door,  floor,  moor,   poor/pour,  tour/tor,  your.
Boar/bore,  roar,  soar.  Abhor.
     Chore, core, fore, gore, more, ore, pore, score,  shore, snore, sore, store, tore, swore, 
adore, ashore, before, carnivore, folklore,  ignore, implore.
For, forth, forteen,   nor,   or, dor, flor, mor,  por,  tor, yor, bor, ror, sor, abor, chor, cor, for, gor, mor, or, por, scor,  shor, snor, sor, stor, tor, swor,  ador, ashor, befor, carnivor, fokelor,  ignor, implor.

In standard UK English the regular  aw  endings   have the same sound as  ore

Awe, claw, draw,  flaw, gnaw, jaw, saw, straw, thaw, law, paw, raw.


Ou,  -ow – (sound, now – brown, bough) – mainly ou inside words and  -ow at the end,

                    with a few exceptions

Flour/flower, our/hour,   power, shower, tower. Brown, clown, crown, down, drown, frown,  gown, town. 
Crowd, powder. Coward
Fowl/foul , growl, howl, owl, prowl, scowl,  towel
Browse, drowse.  Brow, cow, how, now, vow, wow, allow, miaow, Bough/bowx2,  rowx2, sowx2,  sloughx2,  ploughthou.
flour our,   pouer,  shouer,  touer, broun, cloun, croun, doun, droun, froun,  goun, toun, 
croud,  pouder, couerd
foul,  groul, houl, oul, proul, scoul,  touelbrouse, drouse
 
bow/bo,  
row/ro,  sow/so,   slow/sluf,     plow,  thou,

In early English, the letter v spelt both the short /u/ and /v/ sounds. Later v and u were used interchangeably. Early printers deliberately misspelt many a sinlge u with w by doubling a v.

Qu – (quick – acquit) – [78 – 4]

Acquaint, acquire, acquit.   Choir.Aquaint, aquire, aquit.   Quire.


R – (run – wrong, rhubarb) – [1,670 – 27]

Wrangle,  rap/wrap,   wrath, wreck, wren, wrench, wrestle, wretch, wreak/reek, wreath, wriggle,  ring/wring,  wrinkle, wrist, written,  
right/rite/write,  writhe, wrong,  wrote/rote, rung/wrung,  rye/wry.
 Rhythm, rhyme/rime, rhinoceros, rhododendron,   rhubarb, rheumatism.
rangle,  rap,   rath(US)/roth(UK), reck, ren, rench,  ressle, rech, reek, reeth, riggle,  ring,  rinkle, rist, ritten,  
rite,  rithe, rong,  rote,  rung,  ry.
 Rithm, rime, rinosserus, rododendron,   roobarb,  rumatism.


S  –  (set, sit) – /s/ before e, i and y at the beginning of words – [70 s –   30 c, 5 sc).

Sell/cell,   seller/cellar,   sent/cent/scent
Celebrate, celery, cellophane, cement, cemetery, centigrade, central, centre,  entury, certain, certificatex2,  ceremony
Seen/scene,  scenery.  Cease, cedar, ceiling, cereal
Cigar, cigarette, cinder, cinema,  circle, circuit, circular, circulate, circumference, circumstance, circus,
cistern, citizen, citrus, city, civic,  civil, civilian, civilisation, civilise.  Cygnet/signet.  Scissors.
Cider, site/cite/sight. Cycle.  Science, scythe.
Sell,   seller,   sent
Sellebrate, sellery, sellofane, sement, semmetery, sentigrade, sentral, senter,  sentury, serten, sertificat(n)/sertificate(v), serremony. 
Seen,  seenery.   Seece, seedar, seeling,  seereal. 
Sigar, sigaret, sinder, sinnema,  sircle, sirkit, sirculer, sirculate,  sircumference, sircumstance, sircus, sistern, sittizen, sitrus, sitty, sivvic,  sivvil, sivillian, sivilisation, sivvilise.  Signet.  Sizzers.
Sider,  site.  Sikel.   Sience, sithe.

 (Concern – consent) – inside words ce and ci are the main spellings – [70 – 36]

Absent, abscess,  advertisement, arsenic, ascend, ascertain,  consent, consequence, conservative, condescend, descend, descent,  insect, insert, morsel, persevere. 
Analysis, basic, basin, consider, consist, crisis, disciple, discipline,  emphasis, insist, oasis,  persistent, responsible, tonsil, university,  utensil.   Capsize, prehensile.   proboscis
abcent, abces,  adverticement, arcenic, acend,  acertain,  concent, concequence, concervative, condecend,  decend, decent,  incect, incert, morcel, perceveer,   
anallicis, bacic, bacin, concider, concist, cricis, deciple, diciplin, emfacis, incist, oacis,  percistent, responcible, toncil, univercity,  utencil,   capcize, prehencile, probocis,

With ce and ci:

Ancestors, cancel, cancer, concentrate, concept, conception, concern, concert, December, decent, grocer, innocent, license, licentious, magnificent, necessity, parcel, percent, perception, pincer, porcelain, princess, process, procession, reception, recent, recess, rhinoceros, saucer.
   Conceal. Conceit, conceive, deceit, deceive, receipt, receive.
Facetious, precede, procedure. Proceed, proceedings, proceeds. Plasticine. 
Council/counsel, criticism, deciduous, decision, facilities, hyacinth, incident, medicine, narcissus, Pacific, participation, pencil, precision, principal, principle, specific, stencil.
Coincide, decide, decisive, decipher, docile, exercise, precise, recite,  suicide;  society.

In unstressed endings,  the spelling of the /s/-sound and the vowel before it  are both unpredictable,  (practice – promise, tennis, fortress).  

The  –is ending  is the most logical:  axis, bronchitis, chrysalis,  crisis,  emphasis, hypothesis, iris, oasis pelvis, proboscis, synthesis, tennis, trellistonsillitis;  atlas, canvas, Christmas, pampas, pyjamas

 A practice/to practise (in UK only),  apprentice, armistice, coppice, crevice, justice, notice, novice, office, precipice, service. Premise, promiseMenace, necklace, palace, purchace, surface, terrace.   
    Carcass, compass, embarrass, trespass.
Abscess, access, congress, cypress, fortress, mattress, process, progressx2, recess, harness, witness.     Purpose,  tortoise.   Lettuce.
Practis, apprentis, armistis, coppis, crevvis, justis, notis, novvis, offis, precipis, servis. Premmis, prommis. Mennas, necklas, pallas, purchas, surfas, terras.   
 Carcas, compas, embarras, trespas.
Abcesaxes, congres, ciperes, fortres, matres, proces, progress(n), progress(v), reces, harnes, witnes.     Purpos,  tortois.   Lettis.


-ce  (face, ice, fence – base, precise, dense) – final s-sound– [153 – 56]
         (-se is the main spelling for /z/ endings, e.g. phrase,  rise,  chose)

      Base, case, chase
Cease, crease, grease, increase, release,  geese, these.  
Concise, precise. Dose Goose, loose, noose, mouse.
Close x2,  house x2,   excuse x2,  use x2.
  [too cloce to close…,    no uce, to use]
Bace, cace, chace. Ceece, creece, greece, increece, releece,  geece, theece.   Concice, precice. Doce.  Gooce, looce, nooce, mouce.  Cloce/close,  houce/house,   excuce/excuse, uce/use        (e.g. too cloce  to close)

 -ce  – (fence, force,  else) is also the main spelling for a final s-sound after consonants,  

           with 35 exceptions:

Dense, expanse, expense, immense,  intense, licensenonsense, response,  rinse, sense, suspense, tense.      Else, pulse, impulse. 
Col
lapse, copse, corpse, eclipse,  elapse, glimpse, lapse.  Coarse/course,  hoarse/ horse,   curse, gorse, nurse, purse, rehearse,  reverse, universe, verse, worse.
Dence, expance, expence, imence,  intence,   licence, nonsence, responce,  rince, sence, suspence, tence.    Elce, pulce, impulce. 
Colapce, copce, corpce, eclipce,  elapce, glimpce, lapce.    Corce,  horce,   curce,  gorce, nurce, purce, reherce,   reverce, univerce, verce, werce.



-s- – (nasal) – Inside words, between vowels in themain spelling for the z-sound, except:

Bazaar, blazer, brazen, frozen gazelle, hazel, horizon, lozenge, magazine, razor, tweezers.  Desert x2.Basaar, blaser, brasen, frose,  gasell, hasel, horison, losenge, magaseen, raser, tweesers. A dezzert, to desert.

With s for medial /z/:

Acquisition, busy, chisel, chrysanthemum, closet, cousin, daisy, deposit, deserve, design, designate, desire, desolate, diesel, easel, easy, episode, exquisite, fuselage, geyser, hesitate, Joseph, miser, miserable, mosaic, museum, music, nasal, opposite, partisan, peasant, pheasant, physical, physiological, pleasant, poison, position, positive, presence, present, presentation, preserve, president, presumably, prison, proposal, proposition, raisin, realisation, reason, resemble, resentment, reserve, reservoir, residence, resign, resolution, resolve, resort, result, resume, risen, rosette, thousand, treason, visible, visit, weasel.


-se – (rise, wise – size) – main spelling for a z-sound in endings – [205 – 26],

except:    

Blaze, craze, crazy, gaze, graze, haze, laze, lazy, maze, raze, amaze
Breeze, freeze, sneeze, squeeze, wheeze. Trapeze. Seize.
Prize, size, capsize.
Doze, froze, bulldoze.  Ooze, booze.
Blase, crase, crasy, gase, grase, hase, lase, lasy, mase, rase, amase
Breese, freese, sneese, squeese, weese. Trapeese. Seese.
Prise, sise, capcise.
Dose, frose, bulldose. ose, boose.

In US also:  Advertize, agonize, apologize, authorize, baptize, characterize, civilize, computerize, emphasize, fertilize, hypnotize, idolize, memorize, merchandize, organize, realize, recognize, sterilize, synchronize, tantalize.  – In UK English they are spelt  with  -ise.


Sh – (ship, fish – chivalrous, avalanche) –  at the beginning or end of words [166 – 14]

Chalet, champagne, chandelier, charade
chef, chivalrous, chute
Sugar, sure (insure).
Moustache, avalanche, microfiche; liquorice.
Shallayshampain, shandeleer, sharade
shef, shivvalrous, shute
Shugger, shure (inshure),
Mustash, avalansh, microfeesh; lickorish,

In the middle of words, the /sh/ sound is spelt very irregulary.

  Bishop, cashew, mushroom, usher, marshal.  Ancient, appreciate, efficient, sufficient, associate, species. Assure, pressure, issue, tissue
Crochetx2,  machine, parachute
     Conscience, fascism.  Patient.
     Ainshent, appreeshiate, efishent, sufishent, asoshiate, speeshes. Ashure, preshure, ishue, tishue
Crochet/croshay,   masheen,  parrashoot. 
     Conshence, fashism. Pashent.


-si-, -su – (vision, exposure) – for relatively uncommon  zh-sound:
Asia, conclusion, confusion, decision, diffusion, explosion, division, Indonesia, illusion, invasion, occasion, precision, provision, supervision, vision, (television), 
Casual, usual, exposure, leisure, measure, pleasure, treasure.
    With very few exceptions:

Azure, bourgeois, fissure.Asure, borjua, fisure.



T – (top, pot) – very regular in the stem of words [1,398 – 5]

Two/toopterodactyl;  debt, doubt, subtle.too, terodactil; det, dout, suttle.


-tch – (itch) – for /ch/-sound after short vowels. – See Ch.


th – (this thing) – no other spellings for either of the two sounds.

It would be easy to add a new spelling for one of the two sounds (perhaps dh – dhin, dhing). But as the lack of different spellings for them does not appear to cause many problems, this is not an urgent matter. 

-ti-  -main spelling for /sh/-sound inside endings (palatial,  ignition,  ambitious, convention),

       but with exceptions:   facial,  mission, delicious, extension– [151 – 72]

Facial, glacial, racial, social, crucial financial, commercial,   controversial.
Artificial, beneficial, judicial, official, sacrificial, special, superficial. 
Auspicious, avaricious, delicious, judicious, malicious, officious, pernicious, suspicious, vicious.
Pugnacious, vivacious, audacious, rapacious, spacious, tenacious, voracious
Atrocious, ferocious, precocious. Precious.    
Conscious, anxious.  Luscious.   
Admission, commission, emission, mission,  permission, transmission, fission. 
Suspicion.
Discussion, percussion. Cushion
Comprehension, condescension, dimension, expansion, extension, mansion, pension, 
      suspension, tension.
Aspersion, conversion, dispersion, diversion, immersion, inversion, subversion, version, excursion, incursion.  Coercion. Ration.  Fashion.  Passion.  ocean.
Fatial,  glatial,  ratial,  sotial,  crutial,   finantial,  commertial,    controvertial.
Artifitial,  benefitial,  juditial,  ofitial,  sacrifitial,  spetial,  superfitial. 
Auspitious,  avaritious,  delitious,  juditious,  malitious,  ofitious,  pernitious,  suspitious,  vitious.
Pugnatious,  vivatious,  audatious,  rapatious,  spatious,  tenatious,  voratious. 
Atrotious,  ferotious,  precotious.  Pretious.    
Contious, anctious. Lushous. Admition,  commition,  emition,  mition,   permition,  transmition,  fision. 
Suspition. Discution,  percution. Cution. 
Comprehention,  condecention,  dimention,  expantion,  extention,  mantion,  pention,  
      suspention,  tention.
Aspertion,  convertion,  dispertion,  divertion,  immertion,  invertion,  subvertion,  vertion,  excurtion,  incurtion.  Coertion. Ration, fation, pation, otian.


U – (run – done) – [308 – 68
     Next to  m,  n  and  v,  the short/u/ sound is often spelt o,  

    *  and often without a doubled consonant after it too:

Monday, money*, monger, mongrel, monk,  monkey, month,  mother, smother.
  Come,   some/sum.   Comfort,  company,  compass pommel,  stomach*.      Nothing.   Son/sun,  ton.    Among,  front,  tongue, sponge. 
Donenone/nun.   Honey*, onion*. 
   Won/one, wonder.  Once.    Above, cover*, covet*, covey*, covenant*,  dove, glove,  govern*,  love,  oven*,   shove,  shovel*,  slovenly*
           Country, nourish*, young. Enough.
Munday, munny, munger, mungrel, munk,  munky, munth,  muther, smuther.
     Cum, sum.  Cumfort,  cumpany,  cumpas,   pummel,  stummac.       Nuthing.   Sun,  tun.    Amung,  frunt,  tung, spunge. 
     Dun, nun.   Hunny,  unnion. 
     Wun, wunder.  Wunce.
    Abuv, cuvver, cuvvet, cuvvy, cuvvenant,  duv, gluv,  guvvern,  luv,  uvven,   shuv,  shuvvle,  sluvvenly. 
           Cuntry, nurrish, yung.  Enuff.

A few other words have irregular spellings for the short u-sound, not next to  m,  n  or  v:

Double*, trouble.  Blood,  flood. Rough,  slough,  tough.  Cousin*,  dozen*.
Colour*,  does.  Southern.  Hiccough [hickup].
Courage*,  thorough*.  WorryTouchCouple*.  Other,  brother.
Dubble, trubble.  Blud,  flud. Ruf,  sluf,  tuf.  Cuzzen,  duzzen.
Culler,  dus.  Suthern.  Hickup
Currage,  thurru.  Wurry. Tuch. Cupple.  Uther,  bruther. 


u – e,  -ue – (use, tuba; due) – with few exceptions in the stem of words – [137 – 26]                        

eucalyptus, ewer
feud, feudal, jewel                            
lewd, neutral, newt, nuclear,
beauty, nuisance, pewter, pneumatic, pseudo,
rheumatism,
sewage, stewardsuicidesuitable, suitcase,
juice, Tuesday, you/ewe/yew,   youth,
ucalyptus, uer
fude, fudal, juel                            
lude, nuteral, nute, nukelear,
buty, nusance, puter, numatic, sudo,
rumatism,
suage, stuardsucidesutable, sutecase,
juce, Tuseday, u,   yooth,

In endingsless predictable – [18 – 19]

Argue, avenue, barbecue, continue, imbue, issue, pursue,  rescue, revenue, statue, subdue, sue, tissue, 
 value, devalue, venue, virtue.

Cue/queue,   due/dew,
Chew, few, Jew, knew/new, pew, spew, stew.
 Askew, curfew, curlew, mildew, nephew. 
View, interview, review.       Emumenu.
Cue,   due,   
Chue,  fue,  Jue,   nue,  pue,  spue,  stue.
 Askue,  curfue,  curlue,  mildue,  neffue. 
Vue,  intervue,  revue.     Emue,  mennue.


W – (went, with – when, whip) – [216  – 31]

Whack, whale, wharf, what.
Whelk, when,   where/wear, whether/weather,  whey, overwhelm. Wheedle, wheel, wheeze. Whiff, whimper, whip, whirl, whirring, whisk, whiskers, whisky/whiskey, whisper, which,  whistle, whiz. While, whilst, wine/whine, white, why.  Whoosh.
Wack, wale, worf, wot.
Welk,  wen,     wair,  wether,  way,  overwelm.   Weedle,  weel,  weese. Wif,  wimper,  wip,  wirl,  wirring,  wisk,  wiskers,  wisky,  wisper,  wich,   wissle, wiz.  Wile,  wilest,  wine,  wite,  wy.  Woosh.


 X – (exit, fix) – main spelling for the ks-sound – [98 –  15]

Accent, accept, access, accelerate, accident. 
            Eccentric. Success, succeed, succinct.
Excellent, except, excess, exceed, excite.  Exhibition.
Axent,  axept,  axes,  axellerate,  axident. 
            Exentric,  suxess,  suxeed,  suxinct.
Exellent, exept, exess, exeed, exite.  Exibition.

  In a few words x is pronounced gz:

Anxiety, exact, exaggerate, examine example, exasperate, exert, exist,    exhaust.Angziety, egzact, egzadgerate, egzammin, egzample, egzasperate, egzert, egzist,    egzaust.


–y  – (baby, boldly) – main spelling for an unstressed final /ee/-sound – [475 – 39]  

Abbey,  alley,  attorney,  bogey,  chimney,  chutney,  cockney,  covey,  donkey,   hockey,  holey,  honey,  jersey,  jockey,   journey,  kidney,  medley,  money,  monkey,  parsley,  pulley,  story/storey,   trolley,   turkey,  valley,  volley,   whisky/whiskey (US). 
  Brownie,  budgie,  caddie,  collie,  cookie,    eerie,  genie,  movie,  pixie,  prairie,  wheelie.
Abby,  ally,  attorny,  bogy,  chimny,  chutny,  cocny,  cuvvy,  donky,   hocky,  holy,  hunny,  jersy,  jocky,   jurny,  kidny,  medly,  munny,  munky,  parsly,  pully,  story,  trolly,  turky,  vally,  volly,   wisky. Brouny,  budgy,  caddy,  colly,  cooky,   eery,  jeeny,  moovy,  pixy,  prairy,  weely .


-y  –  (fly)   is also the most frequent but unpredictable spelling for a stressed final ie-sound – [16 – 14]:
          Cry, dry, fly, fry, my, ply, pry, shy, sky, sly, spy, sty, thy, try, why, wry.

By/buy/bye,   die/dye, lie, pie, tie, vie.  High, nigh, sigh, thigh.   Rye. Guy.By, Dy,  ly, py, ty, vy.   Hy, ny, sy, thy.    Ry. Gy.

It creates reading problems in 7 longer words:
     Ally, apply, deny, supply, magnify, multiply, rely,  verify – (Cf. tally, subtly, puffy…).

They would be better as: allye, aplye, denye, relye, suplye, magnifye, multiplye, verrifye.


Z – (zap, rise) –[16- 1] for an initial /z/ sound: 

Zany, zap, zeal, zebra, zenith, zero, zest, zigzag, zinc, zip, zither, zodiac, zone, zoo, zoom, Zulu.

xylophonezilofone

 In the middle of words the main spelling for the z-sound is (desire, result) and in 
endings –se (rise). –  See –s- and –se.

2) Unstressed vowel problems

Only stressed English vowels can be heard clearly, and most English words have just one of them

(butter, describe, understand). The unstressed vowels range from fairly audible (bicycle) to almost nonexistent.

      They occur mainly in endings and prefixes, and their spellings are very irregular:

laughable – compatible,   primary – mistery – factory,   madden – abandon – urban – villain, 

confidence – guidance,   competent – distant,   fitter – actor; 

deserve – disaster; indulge – endager.

      Because their spellings take much learning, and because it helps to exaggerate their pronunciation while doing so, many people end up thinking that they can detect differences in their pronunciation and would find their altered appearance shocking. In ordinary speech, all unstressed vowels sound much the same.

      They cause no reading difficulties. Standardising them would therefore not make learning to read English any easier, only to spell. They are therefore perhaps in less urgent need of reform, despite creating much pointless memorisation of spellings. 

 –able/ –ible – [33 – 17] –  (doable – feasible)

 Audible, compatible, edible, feasible, flexible, horrible,  incredible, invisible, permissible, possible, responsible, sensible, terrible, visible,      eligible, legible, illegible, tangible.Audable, compatable, edable, feesable, flexable, horrable, incredable, invisable, permissable, possable, responsable, sensable, terrable, visable,   

  -al/ el/ –ol  (oval – gravel – devil) – [213 – 31]

Caramel, cockerel, colonel, cruel, diesel, drivel, duel, easel, fuel, gravel, hazel, hostel, jewel, label, novel, spaniel, towel, vowel, weasel.
Civil, devil, evil, pupil.
Capitol, carol, cholesterol, idol, parasol, petrol, pistol, symbol/cymbal.
Caramal, cockeral, curnal, crual, diesal, drivval, dual, eesal, fual, gravval, hazal, hostal, jewal, labal, novval, spannial, towal, vowal, weasal.
Civval, devval, eval, pupal.
Cappital, carral, colesteral, idal, parrasal, petral, pistal,  simble.

-le – (dangle, apple – channelmorsel) – [175 – 27] –  -le is the main spelling for a final l-sound  after several consonants,  except:

Kernel, kestrel, mongrel, satchel, scoundrel. 
Anvil, nostril
Council/counsel, morsel, parcel
pencil, stencil, tonsil, utensil. Channel, flannel, funnel, kennel, pommel, pummel, tunnel,    barrel, quarrel,  squirrel, tassel, vessel, muscle/mussel.
Kernle, kestrle, mongrle, satchle, scoundrle. 
Anvle, nostrle. 
Counsle, morsle, parsle, 
pensle, stensle, tonsle, utensle. Channle, flannle, funnle, kennle,  pommle, pummle, tunnle,    barrle, quorrle,  squirrle, tassle, vessle,  mussle.




ary / -ery / -ory / -ry –  (37 –ary / 58 others)- utterly unpredictable.

            ‘Carpentry, chemistry, etc.’ suggest that the vowels before –ry are nearly all redundant. 
Adversary, anniversary, arbitrary, aviary, boundary, burglary, commentary, contemporary, contrary, diary, dictionary, elementary, estuary, February, January, library, literary, military, monetary, necessary, ordinary, planetary, preliminary, primary, pulmonary, reactionary, revolutionary, salary, secondary, secretary, solitary, stationary, summary, temporary, veterinary, vocabulary, voluntary.

Archery, artery, artillery, blustery, celery, cemetery, colliery, crockery, delivery, discovery, drudgery, every, gallery, jewellery, lottery, machinery, monastery, mystery, nursery, pottery, recovery, robbery, scenery, stationery/stationarysurgery
   Category, dormitory, factory, history,inventory, ivory, laboratory, memory, observatory, satisfactory, territory, theory
     Century, injury, luxury, Mercury, mercury,   treasury.      Savoury. Carpentry, chemistry, country, entry,  gantry, industry, infantry,  paltry, pantry, pastry, poetry,  poultry, symmetry, tapestry.
Archary, artary, artillary, blustary, sellary, semmetary, colliary, crockary, delivary, discovary, drudgery, evry, gallary, jewellary, lottary, masheenary, monastary, mistary, nursary, pottary, recovary, robbary, seenary, stationary, surgery
   Categary, dormitary, factary, histary, inventary, ivary, laboratary, memmary, observatary, satisfactary, territary, theary
     Century, injury, luxury, Mercury, mercury, treasury.      Savoury. Carpentry, chemistry, country, entry,  gantry, industry, infantry,  paultry, pantry, pastery, poetry,  poultry, symmetry, tapestry.

-en / -on / -an /-ain /-in – (fasten, certain, apron…) – [74 – 132] – unpredictable:
With –en: Abdomen, alien, awaken, barren, batten/baton, bitten, bracken, brazen, brighten, chicken, children, chosen, christen, citizen, delicatessen, dozen, driven, eleven, even, fallen, forgotten, frighten, frozen, garden, given, glisten, golden, happen, heathen, heaven, hidden, hydrogen, kindergarten, kitchen, kitten, laden, lessen/lesson, lichen, listen, loosen, madden, mitten, often, omen, open, oven, oxygen, pollen, raven, ridden, ripen, risen, rotten, sadden, seven, sharpen, sodden, specimen, spoken, stamen, stolen, strengthen, sudden, sullen, swollen, taken, threaten, token, vixen, warren, women, wooden, woollen, written.

   Abandon, apron, baconbadminton, baron/barren, beacon, beckon, bison, carbon, carton, cauldron, common, comparison, cordon, cotton, coupon, crayon, crimson, damson, demon,  dragon, electron,  flagon, gallon,  heron, horizon, iron, jettison, lemon, mason, matron, melon, mutton, nylon, octagon, pardon, pentagon, person, phenomenon, piston, poison, prison,   pylon, python, reason, reckon, ribbon, salmon, salon, Saxon, season, sermon, siphon, skeleton, summon, talon,  treason, venison, wagon, wanton, weapon. Chameleon, dungeon, luncheon,   pigeon, surgeon, truncheon. 
   Alsatian, amphibian, cardigan,  Christian, civilian, comedian, Dalmatian, historian, hooligan, Indonesian, magician, metropolitan, musician, ocean, optician, organ, orphan, partisan, pedestrian, pelican, republican, Roman, rowan, ruffian, slogan, suburban, tartan, toucan, turban, urban, utopian, vegetarian, veteran, woman
Hurricane. 
Bargain, captain, certain, fountain, mountain, porcelain, villain. 
   The -in endings are perhaps a little different?
Aspirin, basin, bulletin, cabin, catkin, coffin, cousin, dolphin, gherkin, goblin, javelin, origin, paraffin, penguin,  pumpkin, raisin, robin, satin, sequin, tarpaulin, urchin, vermin.
Abanden, apren, bacon, badminton, barren,  beaconbecken, bisen, carben, carten, cauldren, commen,  comparisen, corden, cotten, coopen,  crayen, crimsen, damsen, deemen,  draggen, electren, flaggen, gallen,  herren, horizen, iren, jettisen, lemmen, masen, matren, mellen, mutten, nylen, octagen, parden, pentagen, persen, fenommenen, pisten, poisen, prizzen,  pilen, pithen, reesen, recken, ribben, sammen, sallen, Saxen, seesen, sermen, siphen, skelleten, summen, tallen,  treesen, vennisen, waggen, wonten, weppen. Cameelen, dungen, lunchen,  pigen, surgen, trunchen. Alsatien, amphibien, cardigan, Cristien, civillien, comeedien, Dalmatien, historien, hooligan, Indonesien, magicien, metropolliten, musicien, ocean, opticien, organ, orfen, partisen, pedestrien,  pelican, republican, Romen, rowen,  ruffien, slogan, suburben, tarten, toucan, turben, urben, utopien, vegetarien, vetteren,   woman.
Hurrican. 
Bargan, capten, serten, founten,   mounten, porcelen, villen. 

Aspirin, basin, bulletin, cabin, catkin, 
coffin, cousin, dolphin, gherkin, goblin, javelin, origin, paraffin, penguin,  pumpkin, raisin, robin, satin, sequin, tarpaulin, urchin, vermin.

-ence/-ance – (commence / ambulance) – [33 – 26]:
 With –ence:  Absence, adolescence, circumference, commence, competence, conference, confidence, consequence, difference, essence, evidence, existence, experience, independence, indifference, influence, innocence, insolence, intelligence, interference, licence, occurrence, offence, presence, providence, reference, science, sentence, sequence, silence, violence, conscience, patience.

Abundance, acceptance, accordance,   alliance, allowance, ambulance,  appearance, appliance, assurance,   balance, distance, endurance,   finance, fragrance, guidance,  ignorance, importance, instance,  insurance, maintenance, nuisance, performance, resistance, substance, vengeance,  significance,Abundence, acceptence, acordence,  alience, alowence, ambulence,  apeerence,  aplience, ashurence,  ballence, distence, endurence,  finence, fragrence, guidence,  ignorence, importence, instence,  inshurence, maintenence, nusence,  performence, resistence, substence, vengence,   significance,

-ent / -ant – (competent/ protestant) – [107 – 35]

Assistant, brilliant, covenant, defiant, distant, elephant, fragrant, gallant, giant, ignorant, important, infant, instant, jubilant, lieutenant(UK/US differences) merchant, pageant, peasant, pheasant, pleasant, protestant, relevant, remnant, restaurant, sergeant, sextant, truant, tyrant, valiant, warrant.
Applicant, descant, significant, vacant. Extravagant,
Assistent, brillient, covvenent, defient, distent, ellefent, fragrent, gallent, gient, ignorent, importent, infent, instent, jubilent, lieutenant, merchent, padgent, pezzent,  fezzent, plezzent, protestent, rellevent, remnent, restaurant, sergent, sextent, truent, tirent, valient, worrent.
Applicant, descant, significant, vacant. Extravagant,

-er   /-or /-our… – (after, actor, nectar, armour;  butcher, culture) – [315 – 170]
     In US English 7 words which have –re endings in the UK have already been modernised.

Additionally, 18 British –our endings have been shortened to –or (labour – labor) in US, but these still need to be learned as exceptions from the –er pattern, just like the other 75 words which end in –or.

Centre, fibre, ogre, sabre, theatre, kilometre (UK) Metre/meter (UK) With -or in US, -our in UK: Armour, behaviour, colour, favour, flavour, glamour, harbour, honour, humour, labour, neighbour, odour, parlour, rumour,  saviour, savour, splendour, tumour.Center, fiber, oger, saber, theater, kilometre (US) Meter (US)   Armer, behavier, culler, faver, flaver, glammer, harber, onner, humer, laber, naber, oder, parler, rumer,  savier,  saver, splender, tumer.
Actor, advisor, alligator, ambassador,  ancestor, anchor, assessor, author, boaconstrictor, calculator, castor,  conductor, conveyor, corridor,  decorator, demonstrator, director, doctor,  editor, elevator, emperor, equator, error,  escalator, factor, gladiator, governor,  indicator, interior, inventor, investor,   junior, juror, legislator,  liquor, major, manor, mayor, minor,  mirror, monitor, motor, navigator,  operator, orator, prior, professor,  proprietor, radiator, razor, rector, refrigerator, respirator, rotor,  scissors, senator, senior, sensors,  solicitor, spectator, sponsor, successor,  superior, supervisor, surveyor, survivor, tailor, tenor, terror, tractor, traitor, tutor, victor, visitor, warrior.   Angular, burglar, caterpillar, cellar,  circular, collar, dollar, familiar,  rammar, jaguar, liar, lunar, muscular,  nectar, particular, peculiar, pillar,  polar, poplar, popular, regular,   scholar, secular, similar, solar,  spectacular, sugar, vicar, vulgar.    Answerchauffeur, jodhpurs, martyr. Conjure, exposure, injure, leisure, measure,  pleasure, treasure, procedure.      Adventure, agriculture, architecture,  capture, caricature, creature, culture,  departure, expenditure, feature, fracture,  furniture, future, gesture,  lecture, legislature, literature,  manufacture, miniature, mixture,  nature, picture,   puncture, scripture, signature, structure,  temperature, torture, venture, vulture.     In UK English the –a ending in the following 64 words is pronounced much like an –er one too.
   Algebra, antenna, area, arena, armada, asthma, banana, cafeteria, camera, capita, china, cinema, cobra, dahlia, data, dilemma, diploma, drama, era, extra, formula, gala, gondola, gorilla, gymkhana, hydrangea, hyena, idea, larva, lava, llama, malaria, militia, nebula, opera, orchestra, panda, panorama, peninsula, piazza, piranha, pizza, pneumonia, propaganda, pupa, quota, regatta, replica, soda, sofa, stigma, tarantula, tiara, tuba, tundra, umbrella, utopia, vanilla, veranda, via, villa, yoga, zebra. Cheetah.
Acter, adviser, alligater, ambassader, ancester, anker, assesser, auther, boaconstricter, calculater, caster,   conducter, convayer, corrider,   decorater, demonstrater, directer, docter,  editer, ellevater, emperer, equater, errer, escalater, facter, gladiater, governer,  indicater, inteerier, inventer, invester,  junier, jurer, legislater, licker, majer, manner, mayer, miner,  mirrer, monniter, moter, navvigater,  opperater, orrater, prier, professer,  proprieter, radiater, razer, recter,   refrigerater, respirater, roter,  sizzers, sennater, seenier, sensers,  solissiter, spectater, sponser, suxesser,  superier, superviser, survayer, surviver,  tailer, tenner, terrer, tracter, traiter,  tuter, victer, visiter, worrier.    Anguler, burgler, catterpiller, celler,  circuler, coller, doller, famillier,  grammer, jaguer, lier, luner, musculer,  necter, partickuler, peculier, piller,  poler, popler, poppuler, regguler,  scoller, seckuler, simmiler, soler,   spectackuler, shugger, vicker, vulger. Anser, shofer, joppers, marter. Conjer, exposure, injer, lesure, mesure, plesure, tresure,  proceedure.              Cf:  Butcher, catcher, pitcher. Advencher, agriculcher, architeccher, capcher, carricacher, creecher, culcher, deparcher, expendicher, feecher, fraccher, furnicher, fucher, jescher,   leccher, legislacher, litteracher,   manufaccher, miniacher, mixcher,  nacher, piccher,  punccher, scripcher, signacher, struccher,  temperacher, torcher, vencher, vulcher.     Respelling them with –er would not suit US English and would seem odd in UK English too, e.g. algebrer, antenner, airer, armader…    They had probably best remain irregular for another few centuries.

De– / di- – (devise, divide) – as unstressed prefix – ( 56 de-, 28 di-):

Dictate, diffusion, dilapidated, dilemma,  diploma, diplomatic, disappear, disaster,  discharge, disciple, discover, discuss,  disease, disguise, disgust, dismantle,  dismay, displace, display, dispose,  dispute, distinct, distribute, disturb,  divide, divine, divorce. Dectate, defusion, delappidated, delemma, deploma, deplomatic, desapeer, desaster,  descharge, deciple, descover, descuss,  deseese, desguise, desgust, desmantle,  desmay, desplace, desplay, despose,  despute, destinct, destribute, ,  desturb,  devide, devine, devorce.

Compare:

 decide (decision, decisive), deciduous, decipher, declare, decline, deduct, defeat,   defect, defend, defiant, define, degree, delay, delicious, delight, deliver, demand,  democratic, demolish, deny, depart, department, depend, deport, deposit, depress, derive,   descend, describe, deserve, design, despair, despatch, despise, despite, destination, destroy, detach, detain, detect, detention, detergent, determine, detest, devalue, develop, devise,  devote, devour.


In– / en– – (increase, enquire) – [73 – 30]

     Some people make an effort to pronounce the unstressed en– prefix as en– rather than in-, but in most people’s normal speech they sound the same: infect, enforce, inject, enjoy, intrude, entertain…

Enable, enamel, encamp, enchant, encircle, enclose, encounter, encourage, encrusted, endanger, endeavour, endure, engage, enforce, engrave, engulf, enjoy, enlarge, enlist, enquire, enrage, enrol, entangle, entertain, enthusiastic, entire, entitled, environment.Inable, inammel, incamp, inchant, insircle, inclose, incounter, incourage, incrusted, indanger, indevvour, indure, ingage, inforce, ingrave, ingulf, injoy, inlarge, inlist, inquire, inrage, inrol, intangle, intertain, inthusiastic, intire, intitled, invironment.

3) Irregularly doubled consonants

When the 226 one-syllable words in the box below

Bag,  bat,  can,  cap,  cat,  chat,  clam,  clan,  clap,  crab,  dab,  dam,  drab,  drag,  fad,  fan,  fat,  flap,  flat,  gag,  glad,  grab,  ham,  hat,  scrap,  scan,  sap,  sag,  sad,  rat,  rap,  ram,  plan,  pat,  pan ,  pad,  nag,  mat,  map,  mad,  lap,  lag,  jam,  jab,  slam,  slap,  snap,  span,  stab,  strap,  tag,  tan,  tap,  trap,  wag,  wrap,  yap,  zap,  bed,  beg,  bet,  fret,  get,  hem,  jet,  leg,  let,  net,  peg,  pen,  red,  set,  stem,  step,  trek,  vet,  web,  wet, bid,  big,  bin,  bit,  brim,  chip,  clip,  crib,  dig,  dim,   dip,   drip,  fit,  flip,  flit,  grim,  grin,  grip,  grit,  hip,  hit,  jig,  kid,  lid,  lip,  pig,  pin,  pip,  quit,  quiz,  rib,  rid,  rig,  rim,  rip,  shin,  ship,  sin,  sit,  skid,  skim,  skin,  skip,  slim,  slip,  slit,  snip,  spin,  spit,  split,  strip,  swim,  thin,  tin,  tip,  trim,  trip,  twig,  twin,  whiz,  win,  wit,  zip, blot,  bob,  bog,  chop,  cop,  crop,  dog,  don,  dot,  drop,  flog,  flop,  fog,  grog,  hog,  hop,  hot,  job,  jog,  jot,  knot,  lob,  log,  lop,  mob,  mop,  nod,  plod,  plot,  pod,  pot,  prod,  prop,  rob,  rot,  shop,  slog,  snob,  sob,  spot,  stop,  throb,  top,  tot,  trot,  but,  club,  cub,  cup,  cut,  drug,  drum,  fun,  glum,  grub,  gun,  hug,  hum,  jug,  jut,  lug,  mud,  mug,  nut,  plug,  plum,  run, scrub,  shrub,  shrug,  shun,  shut,  slug,  slum,  strum,  strut,  stud,  stun,  sum,  sun,  thud,  thug,  tug,  up.

are made longer with suffixes like  –ed,  -er,  –ing   or  –y, their last consonant gets doubled

to show that their vowel is short rather than long:  

        batted,  batting,  bitty   –  bated,  bating, biting.

At least 503  root words of more than one syllable (listed at the end of this section) also have doubled consonants (or  ck, dg)  to show that their main vowel is short rather than long:

        e.g.  fatten,  teddy,   dinner,  popper,  supper,   pocket,  fridge  –

            cf. fatal,    tedious,  diner,     pope,      super,      poker,  oblige.

But in the 7,000 most used English words which I examined

              575 words are without doubling (habit, study – c.f. rabbit, muddy) and

              219  wordshave needlessly doubled consonants (e.g. arrive – cf. arise).

This makes English consonant doubling almost completely unsystematic

Of the 575 words of more than one syllable which do not indicate their short, stressed vowels:

            328 have no other irregularities apart from their undoubled consonants

                     (e.g. body, copy, study –  cf. shoddy, poppy, muddy),

              73 do not use ckdgss and zz

                     (e.g.  placard,  agile,  acid,  scissors  –  c.f.   packet,  badger, massive, blizzard)                       and  174  words have assorted other irregularities as well

                     (e.g. women,   foreign  –  cf. swimmer;   sorry, flatten).

328 words which merely lack consonant doubling:

ability,  abolish,  abominable,  academic,  academy,  agony,  aluminium,  America,  animal, apologise,  aquatic,  Arab,  arable,  arid,  asparagus,  astonish,  astrology,  astronomy,  athletic,  atom,  atomic,   authority,  avenue,  average,    banish, banister,  barometer,  baton,  benefit,  bilious,  body,  botany,  brigand,   British,     cabin,  cabinet,  calamity,  camera,  canopy,  capita,  capital,  caramel,  caravan,  carol,  catapult,  category,  cavalry,  cavern,  cavity,  chariot,  charity,  cherish,  clarity,  clever,  clinical,  colony,  comedy,  comet,  comic,  comparison,  conifer,  conspiracy,  continue,  copy,  coral,  credit,  criminal,  critic,  critical,    damage,  deciduous,  dedicate,  delicacy,  deliver,  deluge,  democrat,   demolish,  deputy,  derelict,  develop,   devil,  dilapidated,  diplomatic,  distribute,  dominate,  domino,   dragon,  drivel,  driven,     economic,  economy,  edit,  educate,   electronic,  element,  eleven,  eligible,   eliminate,  emerald,  emigrate,   empirical,  enamel,  enemy,   energy,  epic,  epidemic,  episode,  equivalent,  ever,  evidence,   experiment,     fabulous,  facilities,  family,  famished,  federal,  felon,  finish,  flagon,  florist,  forest,    galaxy,  garage(UK),  given,  glamour,  granary,  gratitude,  gravity,     habit,  havoc,  hazard,  helicopter,  herald,  heritage,  heroin,  heron,  hexagonal,  hideous,  historic,  holiday,  horoscope,  hovel,  hover,     idiot,  image,  inhabit,  inherent,  inherited,  italic,     jaguar,  January,  javelin,  lateral,  latitude,  lavender,  lemon, leper,  liberal,  liberty,  lily,  limit,  linear,  literal,  literary,  lizard,  lozenge,     madam,  magnetic,  magnificent,  majority,  manage,  manual, manuscript, mathematics,  medal,  medical,  melody,  melon,  memorise,  memory,  menu,  merit,  metal,  metropolitan,  military,  mineral,  minimal,  minimum,  minister,  minority,  miracle,  modern,  modest,  monitor,  monotonous,  monument,   moral,  morality,     navigate,  nebula,  never,  numerical,  obliterate,  opera, operate,  opinion,   orange,  organic,  origin,     Pacific,  palace,  panic,  parasol,  parish,  pathetic,  pelican,  penalty,  penetrate,  peril,  periscope,  perish,  petal,  pity,  planet,  platinum,   poetic,  policy,  polish,   political, politics,   popular,  popularity,  poverty,  preliminary,  premier,  primarily,   priority,  privilege,  probability,   probable,  product,  profit,   prohibit,  prominent,  proper,  property,  prosecute,  proverb,  providence,  punish,     quiver, radical,  radish,  rapid,  ravenous,   reality,  reference,  refuge,  relic,   remedy,  reverend,  ridicule,  river,   rivet,  robin,      salad,  salary,  salon,  satin,  saturate,  Saturn,  savage,  scavenge,  semi,  seven,  shiver,  shrivel,  significant,   sincerity,  sinister,  skeleton,  snivel,  solid,  solitary,  spaniel,  specific,   spinach,  spirit,  static,  sterilise,   strategy,  strenuous,  study,   supersonic,      talent,  talon,  tapestry,  telescope,  television,  tepid,  tetanus,  theology,  therapist,  thermometer,  timid,  tolerate,  tonic,  topic,  transparent,  tribute,  tropics,     valentine,  valid,  value,  vanish,   ventriloquist,  very,  video,  vigorous,   vinegar,  vitality,  volume,  voluntary,   vomit,     wagon,  wizard,  wizened,  yeti.  abillity,  abollish,  abomminable,  academmic,  acaddemy,  aggony,  aluminnium,  Amerrica,  annimal,   apollogise,  aquattic,  Arrab,  arrable,  arrid,  asparragus,  astonnish,  astrollogy,   astronnomy,  athlettic,  attom,  atommic,  authorrity,  avvenue,  avverage,  bannish, bannister,  barommeter,  batton,  bennefit,  billious,  boddy,  bottany,  briggand,   Brittish,       cabbin,  cabbinet,  calammity,  cammera,  cannopy,  cappita,  cappital, carramel,  carravan,  carrol,  cattapult,  cattegory,  cavvalry,  cavvern,  cavvity,  charriot,  charrity,  cherrish,  clarrity,  clevver,  clinnical,  collony,  commedy,  commet,  commic,  comparrison,  connifer,  conspirracy,  continnue,  coppy,  corral,  creddit,  crimminal,  crittic, crittical,      dammage,  decidduous,  deddicate,  dellicacy,  delivver,  delluge,  demmocrat,   demollish,  depputy,  derrelict,  devellop,   devvil, dilappidated,  diplomattic,   distribbute,  domminate, dommino,  draggon,  drivvel,  drivven,      econommic,  econnomy,  eddit,  edducate,   electronnic,  ellement,  elevven,  elligible,   elimminate,  emmerald,  emmigrate,  empirrical,  enammel,  ennemy,   ennergy,  eppic,  epidemmic,  eppisode,   equivvalent,   evver,  evvidence,   experriment,      fabbulous,  facillities,  fammily,  fammished,  fedderal,  fellon,  finnish,  flaggon,  florrist,  forrest,     gallaxy,  garrage(UK),  givven,  glammour,  grannary,  grattitude,  gravvity,     habbit,  havvoc,  hazzard,  hellicopter,  herrald,  herritage,  herroin,  herron,  hexaggonal,  hiddeous,  historric,  holliday,  horroscope, hovvel,  hovver,    iddiot,  immage, inhabbit,  inherrent, inherrited,  itallic,     jagguar,  Jannuary,  javvelin,  latteral,  lattitude,  lavvender,  lemmon, lepper,  libberal,  libberty,  lilly,  limmit,  linnear,  litteral,  litterary,  lizzard,   lozzenge,     maddam,  magnettic,  magnifficent,  majorrity,  mannage,  mannual,  mannuscript,  mathemattics,  meddal,  meddical,  mellody,  mellon,  memmorise,  memmory,  mennu,  merrit,  mettal,  metropollitan,  millitary,  minneral,  minnimal,  minnimum,  minnister,  minorrity,  mirracle,  moddern,  moddest,  monnitor,  monottonous,  monnument,   morral, morallity,     navvigate,  nebbula,  nevver,  numerrical,   oblitterate,  oppera,  opperate,  opinnion,   orrange,  organnic,  orrigin,     Paciffic,  pallace,  pannic,  parrasol,  parrish,  pathettic,  pellican,  pennalty, pennetrate,  perril,  perriscope,  perrish, pettal,  pitty,  plannet,  plattinum,   poettic,  pollicy,  pollish,   polittical,  pollitics,   poppular,  popularrity,  povverty,  prelimminary,  premmier,  primarrily,   priorrity,  privvilege,  probabillity,   probbable,  prodduct,  proffit,   prohibbit,  promminent,  propper,  propperty,  prossecute,  provverb,  provvidence,  punnish,     quivver,     raddical,  raddish,  rappid,  ravvenous,   reallity,  refference,  reffuge,  rellic,   remmedy,  revverend,  riddicule,  rivver,   rivvet,  robbin,      sallad,  sallary,  sallon,  sattin,  satturate,  Satturn,  savvage,  scavvenge,  semmi,   sevven,  shivver,  shrivvel,  signifficant,   incerrity,  sinnister,  skelleton,  snivvel,  sollid,  sollitary,  spanniel,  speciffic,   spinnach,  spirrit,  stattic,  sterrilise,   strattegy,  strennuous,  studdy,   supersonnic,      tallent,  tallon,  tappestry,  tellescope,  tellevision,  teppid,  tettanus,  theollogy,  therrapist,  thermommeter,  timmid,  tollerate,  tonnic,  toppic,  transparrent,  tribbute,  troppics,     vallentine,   vallid,  vallue,  vannish,   ventrilloquist,  verry,  viddeo,  viggorous,   vinnegar,  vitallity,  vollume,  volluntary, vommit,     waggon,  wizzard,  wizzened,  yetti.

73 words do not use ck, dg, ss or zz after their short stressed vowel

           –  unlike  ‘beckon, badger, passive, buzzard’.

crocodile,  decade,  decorate,  document,  executive, faculty, placard,  recognise, recordx2,  ridiculous, secondx2, secondary,  secular,  vacuum,    broccoli,  hiccup,  occupy, piccolo,  succulent,  tobacco,    echo, mechanism,     chequered,  lacquer, liquor,  liquorice,            agile,  digit,  exaggerate, frigid, legend, legislate, logic,  magic,   original,  refrigerate,   regiment,  register,  rigid, tragic,   vegetable,     acid,  anticipate,  capacity,  decimal,  electricity,  explicit,  glacier(UK), municipal,   pacifist,  participate, precipice,  publicity,  simplicity, specimen,  velocity,     adolescent, convalescent, crescent,  fascinate,   closet,  deposit,  desert,  hesitate,   miserable,  positive,  presence,   present,  president,  prison,   resident,  risen,  visit.crockodile,   deckade,  deckorate,  dockument,  execkutive, fackulty, plackard,  reckognise,   reckord(n), record(v),  ridickulous, seckond(n),second(v),  seckondary,  seckular,  vackuum,    brockoly,  hickup,  ockupye,  pickolo,  suckulent,  tobacko,     ecko,  meckanism,  checkered,  lacker,  lickor,  lickorish,           adgile,  didgit,  exadgerate, fridgid,   ledgend, ledgislate, lodgic,  madgic,  oridginal,  refridgerate, redgiment,   redgister, ridgid,  tradgic,    vedgetable,     assid,  antissipate,  capassity, dessimal,    electrissity,  explissit,  glassier(UK),  munissipal,    passifist,  partissipate,   pressipice, publissity,  simplissity,      spessimen,   velossity,     adolessent,  convalessent,  cressent,  fassinate,   clozzet,  depozzit,  dezzert,  hezzitate,   mizzerable,  pozzitive, prezzence,   prezzent,  prezzident,  prizzon,   rezzident,  rizzen,  vizzit.     

55  words are without doubled consonants after irregularly spelt short vowels

heaven,  heavy,  jealous,  meadow,   ready, (already),  steady,   threaten,  weapon,   zealous,  peasant,  pheasant,  pleasant,         jeopardy,  leopard,  any,  many,  berry/bury,  burial,  heifer,  colour(UK)/color(US),  courage,  cousin,  covenant,  cover,  covet,  dozen,  flourish, govern,  honey,  money,  monetary,  nourish,  onion,  oven,  shovel,  slovenly,  stomach,  somersault,  thorough,  chrysalis,  cylinder,  cynical,  synagogue,  synonym,  syrup,  lyric,  tyranny,  typical,  physics,  physical,   busy,  women,  laurel, sausage  hevven,  hevvy,   jellous,  meddow,   reddy (alreddy),  steddy,   thretten,  weppon,   zellous,  pezzent,  fezzent,  plezzent,  jeppardy,  leppard,  enny,  menny,  berry,  berrial,  heffer,  culler,  currage,  cuzzen,  cuvvenant,  cuvver,  cuvvet,  duzzen,  flurrish, guvvern,  hunny,  munny,  munnetary,  nurrish,  unnion,  uvven,   shuvvle,  sluvvenly,  stummac,   summersault,  thurru, chrissalis,  cillinder,  cinnical,  sinnagog,  sinnonim,  sirrup,  lirric,  tirrany,  tippical,  fizzics,  fizzical,   bizzy,  wimmen,  lorrel, sossage

34 words do not have  doubling in endings, as in ‘apple, little, etc.’

couple, double,  trouble,  apostle,  bristle,  bustle,  camel,  chapel,  chisel,  drivel,  enamel,  gravel,  gristle,  grovel,  hovel,  hustle,  jostle,  level,  model,  muscle/mussel,  novel,  panel,  rustle,  shrivel,  snivel,  subtle,  swivel,  thistle,  travel,  treble,  trestle,  triple,  whistle,  wrestlecupple, dubble,  trubble,  apossle,  brissle,  bussle,  cammle,  chapple,  chizzle,  drivvle,  enammle,  gravvle,  grissle,  grovvle,  hovvle,  hussle,  jossle,  levvle,  moddle,  mussle,  novvle,  pannle,  russle,  shrivvle,  snivvle,  suttle,  swivvle,  thissle,  travvle,  trebble,  tressle,  tripple,  wissle,  ressle

85 words have assorted additional irregularities: 

adequate,  comparative,  feminine, frigate,  heroine,  minute(x2),  negative,  olive,  palate/palette/pallet,  primitive,  relative,  senate,  amateur,  camouflage,  catalogue,  cemetery,  column,  foreign,  honest,   honour,  monarch,  monastery,  shadow,  sheriff,   scissors,  solemn,  widow, premise,   promise,  menace,  novice,     analysis,  anonymous,  anorak,  beret,  cabaret,  café,  chalet,  calendar,  caterpillar, chemical,  chemistry, civil,dynamic,  elephant,  endeavour, laminate(x2),  lieutenant,  moderate(x2),  pacify, platypus,  plumber,  polythene,  qualify,  quality, quarantine,  rebel(x2),  refuse(x2),  regular,  salmon,  Saturday,  separate(x2),  similar,  simile,  sugar,  tenor/tenner,  valiant, venison, verify, camel,  chapel,  model,  panel,   subtle, gravel,  grovel,  level,  novel,  swivel,  travel,  detachaddequat,  comparrativ,  femminin,  friggat, herroin,  minnit(n,v),  minute(adj) neggativ,  olliv,  pallet,  primmitiv,  rellativ,  sennat,  ammatur,  cammuflage,  cattalog,  semmetry,  collum,  forren,  onnest,  onner,  monnark,  monnastry,  shaddo, sherrif,   sizzers,  sollem,  widdo, premmis,   prommis,   mennis,   novvis, anallisis,  anonnimous,  annorac,  berray,  cabbaray,  caffay,  challay,  callender,  catterpiler,   kemmical,  kemmistry, sivvil,dinammic, ellefent,  endevver, lamminate(v), lamminat(adj),  leftennent(UK),  lutennent(US), modderate(vb),  modderat(adj) passifye, plattipus,  plummer,  pollytheen,  quollifye,  quollity, quarranteen,  rebble(n), rebel(vb),    reffuse (n), refuse(vb),  regguler,  sammon,  Satterday,  sepparate(vb), sepparat(adj),  simmiler,  simmily,  shugger,  tenner,  vallient, vennisen, verrifye, cammle,  chapple,  moddle,  pannle,   suttle,  gravvle,  grovvle,  levvle,  novvle,  swivvle,   travvle,  detatch (cf dispatch)   

219 words have surplus consonant doubling – not after a short, stressed vowel.

         Some of them have other irregularities as well (affectionate, excellent), including missing doubling (satellite).

abbreviate, accompany, accomplish, accord, accordance, accordion, account, accrue, accumulate, accuse, accustom, occur,  occurrence, cockerel, cocktail, mackerel, add/ad, odd, address(uk), affair, affect, affection, affectionate,  affluent, afford, chauffeur, differential, diffusion, effect, efficient, effluent, effusivegiraffe, graffiti, offence, offend, offensive, official, officious, paraffin, sheriff,  sufficient, aggravate, aggressive, egg, alliance, allotment, allow, allowance, allowed/aloud, ballistic, balloon,  bull, bulldoze, cell/sellcollage, collapse,  collect, collection, collide, constellation,  controlled, excellent, hello, illegal, illegible, illiterate, illuminate,  illusion, illustration, installation,  intellectual, jewellery,  llama, marvellous,  parallel, pastille, roller, satellite, swollen, tonsillitis, traveller(UK), wholly, accommodation, ammunition, command, commemorate, commence, commission,  commit, commodities, commotion, communication, communion, community,  commuter, immaculate, immediate,  immense, immersion, immortal, immune, programme, programmer, recommend, anniversary, announce, annoy, annul,  connect, Finn/fin, inn, mayonnaise,  personnel, questionnaire, savannah,  tyranny, appal, apparatus, apparent, appendix, applaud, applause, appliance, apply,  appoint, appreciate, apprehensive,  apprentice, approach, appropriate(adj), appropriate(vb), approve, approximate(adj), approximate(vb),  hippopotamus, opportunity, oppose,  sapphire, supply, support, suppose, arrange, array, arrest, arrive, barricade,  correct, correlation, correspond,  curriculum, errerratic, hurrah, interrupt,  irregular, irrigation, purr, serrated, surrender, surreptitious, surround, terrific, torrential, verruca, abscess, assail, assassin, assassinate,  assault, assemble, assert, assessment,  assessor, assign, assist, assistant, associate(n), associate(vb), assort,  assume, cassette, compass, congress, cypress, dessert, embassy, essential,  fission, fortress, gross, guess, harness, lasso, mattress, moose/mousse,  necessarily, necessary,  possess, possessive, possibility,  recess, witness, attach, attack, attain, attempt, attend,  attention, attorney, attract, attribute, battalion, butt/but,  cigaretteomelette, palette, silhouette,  pizzaabreeviate, acumpany, acumplish, acord, acordence, acordion, acount, acrue, acumulate, acuse, acustom, ocurr, ocurrence,  cocrel, coctail, macrle, ad, od, adress(uk), afair, afect, afection, afectionat,  afluent, aford, shofer, diferential,  difusion, efect, eficient, efluent, efusiv, giraf, grafeety, ofence, ofend, ofensiv, oficial, oficious, parrafin, sherrif, suficient, agravate, agressiv, eg, aliance, alotment, alow, alowence,  aloud, balistic, baloon,  bul, buldoze, sel, colage, colapse,  colect, colection, colide, constelation, controled, exelent, helo, ileegal, iledgible, ilitterat, iluminate, ilusion, ilustration, instalation,  intelectual, jewelry, lama, marvelous, parralel, pastil, roler, sattelite, swolen, toncilitis, travvler(UK), holy, acomodation, amunition, comand,  comemmorate, comence, comission, comit, comoddities, comotion, comunication, comunion, comunity,  comuter, imackulat, imeediat,  imence, imersion, imortal, imune, program, programer, recomend, aniversary, anounce, anoy, anull,  conect, Fin/fin, in, mayonaise,  personell, questionair, savanna,  tirrany, apaul, aparatus, aparrent, apendix, aplaud, aplause, aplience, aplye,  apoint, apreeciate, aprehensiv,  aprentice, aproach, apropriat(adj), apropriate(vb), aproove,  aproximat(adj), aproximate(vb),  hipopottamus, oportunity, opose,  saffire, suplye, suport, supose, arainge, aray, arest, arive, baricade,  corect, corelation, corespond,  curickulum, er,erattic, hurah, interupt,  iregguler, irigation, pur,  serated, surender, sureptitious, suround,  teriffic, torential, verooca, abces, asail, asassin, asassinate,  asault, asemble, asert, asesment,  asessor, asine, asist, asistent,  asociat(n), asociate(vb), asort,  asume, caset, cumpas, congres,  siperes, desert, embacy, esential,  fision, fortres, groce, ges, harnes,  lasoo, matres, mooce,  necesarrily, nessesary,  posess, posessiv, posibillity,  reeces, witnes, atatch, atack, atain, atempt, atend, atention, atorny, atract, atribute,batallion, but, sigaretomlet, palet, silooet,  peetsa

       In addition to the above, several dozen words have needlessly doubled  -ff, -ll, -ss  (puff, well, fuss 

 at the end of short words. They have many exceptions (if, us, rough, yes) and can also be confusing 

                        (doll – roll – stole,   shall – call – crawl).

503 words have systematic consonant doubling, or –ck and –dg,  

                                  after their short, stressed vowels:

Adder,  admission,  allergy,  alley,  alligator,  allocate,  ally,  ambassador,  ammonite,  annual,  antenna,  appetite,  armadillo,  arrow,  artillery,  asset,  assurance,  assure,  attic,  attitude,  badger,  baggage,  ballast,  ballet,  ballot,  banner,  barren,  barrier,  barrister,  barrow,  batter,  battery,  beckon,  beggar,  bellow,  belly,  berry/bury,  better,  bicker,  billiard,  billion,  billow,  billy,  bitten,  bitter,  bivvy,  blizzard,  blossom,  bonnet,  borrow,  bottom,  bracken,  bracket,  brilliant,  bucket,  budget,  buffalo,  buffer,  buffet,  bullet,  bulletin,  bullion,  bully,  bunny,  burrow,  butter,  button,  buzzard,  cabbage,  caddy,  cannot,  carrot,  carry,  casserole,  cellar/seller,  cello,  cellophane,  challenge,  chatter,  chicken,  chivvy,  chubby,  chuffed,  civvy,  clammy,  classic,  clatter,  clutter,  cockroach,  coffin,  collar,  college,  colliery,  colossal,  comment,  commentary,  commerce,  common,  communism,  communist,  confetti,  copper,  coppice,  corridor,  cottage,  cotton,  cricket,  crockery,  cuckoo,  current,  daddy,  daffodil,  delicatessen,  different,  difficult,  diffident,  dilemma,  dinner,  divvy,  dizzy,  dodgems,  dodgy,  dollar,  drudgery,  dummy,  eddy,  effigy,  effort,  emission,  error,  essay,  essence,  fatty,  fatty,  fellow,  finish/Finnish,  fledgling,  flicker,  flipper,  follow,  forgotten,  fossil,  frilly,  furrowed,  furry,  gallant,  gallery,  gallon,  gallop,  gallows,  garret,  giddy,  glimmer,  glitter,  gorilla,  gossip,  grammar,  granny,  gutter,  halfpenny,  hammer,  happen,  happy,  herring,  hidden,  hobby,  hollow,  holly,  horrible,  horror,  hullabaloo,  hurricane,  hurry,  illustrate,  inflammable,  inner,  innocence,  innocent,  intelligent,  irritable,  issue,  jabber,  jacket,  jagged,  jelly,  jettison,  jetty,  jiffy,  jockey,  jolly,  kipper,  kitten,  ladder,  latter,  lesson/lessen,  letter,  lettuce,  litter,  Lizzy,  lobby,  locket,  lollipop,  lolly,  lorry,  lottery,  luggage,  lullaby,  maggot,  mallet,  mammal,  mammoth,  manner/manor,  marrow,  marry,  massacre,  matter,  merry,  message,  midget,  milligrams,  million,  millipede,  mirror,  missile,  mission,  mitten,  mollusc,  motto,  mummy,  mutter,  mutton,  nanny,  nappy,  narcissus,  narrow,  navvy,  necessity,  necklace,  nugget,  offer,  office,  omission,  otter,  package,  packet,  pannier,  parrot,  passage,  passenger,  patter,  pattern,  pellet,  pennant,  penny,  pepper,  permissible,  permission,  pillar,  pillow,  pinnacle,  pocket,  podgy,  pollen,  pollinate,  poppy,  possible,  potter,  pottery,  pretty,  professor,  pudding,  pullover,  punnet,  puppet,  puppy,  pussyx2,  putty,  quarry,  rabbit,  racket,  rally,  rebellion,  reckon,  regatta,  ribbon,  rickety,  ridden,  rissole,  robbery,  rocket,  rocky,  rubber,  rubbish,  rudder,  ruffian,  rugged,  rummage,  Sabbath,  savvy,  scaffold,  scatter,  scraggy,  scurry,  sellotape,  shabby,  shallow,  shatter,  sherry,  shoddy,  shudder,  shutter,  silly,  simmer,  sitter,  skipper,  skivvy,  slipper,  sloppy,  snigger,  socket,  sodden,  soggy,  sonnet,  sorrow,  sorry,  spaghetti,  spanner,  sparrow,  spinnaker,  splutter,  stagger,  stallion,  stammer,  sticky,  stirrup,  stocking,  stubborn,  stubby,  stutter,  sucker,  sudden,  suffer,  suffocate,  suggest,  sullen,  summary/summery,  summer,  summit,  summon,  supper,  swagger,  swallow,  syllable,  symmetry,  tatter,  teddy,  tennis,  terrace,  terrible,  territory,  terror,  ticket,  tissue,  titter,  tomorrow,  torrent,  traffic,  transmission,  trellis,  trigger,  tummy,  turret,  twitter,  umbrella,  uncanny,  upper,  utter,  vanilla,  villa,  village,  villain,  wallaby,  wallet,  wallop,  wallow,  warrant,  warren,  warrior,  watt,  wedding,  whirring,  wicked,  wicker,  wicket,  willow,  worry,  yellow. Abbey,  barrack,  bullock,  embarrass,  excessive,  fissure,  guerrilla,  guillotine,  hockey,  massive,  narrative,  opposite, porridge,   pressure,  progressive,  pulley,  savannah,  trolley,  valley,  volley,  written.

86 words with –ccle endings (a short vowel followed by doubled consonants and –le).

Apple,  babble,  baffle,  battle,  bottle,  bubble,  buckle,  cackle,  cattle,  chuckle,  cobble,  crackle,  cripple,  cuddle,  dabble,  dappled,  dazzle,  dribble,  drizzle,  fickle,  fiddle,  gabble,  giggle,  gobble,  goggle,  grapple,  grizzle,  guzzle,  hassle,  hobble,  huddle,  juggle,  kettle,  little,  meddle,  middle,  muddle,  muffle,  muzzle,  nettle,  nibble,  nozzle,  nuzzle,  paddle,  pebble,  peddle,  pickle,  pineapple,  prickle,  puddle,  puzzle,  quibble,  raffle,  rattle,  riddle,  ripple,  rubble,  ruffle,  saddle,  scribble,  scuttle,  settle,  shuffle,  sizzle,  skittle,  smuggle,  sniffle,  snuffle,  snuggle,  speckle,  straggle,  struggle,  suckle,  supple,  tackle,  throttle,  tickle,  tipple,  toddle,  topple,  trickle,  tussle,  twiddle,  wiggle,  wobble.

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